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Wiener Zeitschrift Fur Die Kunde Des Morgenlandes, Volumes 21-22 (German Edition)

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Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes.

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Wiener Zeitschrift Fur Die Kunde Des Morgenlandes, Volumes 21-22 (German Edition)

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IPTIVE R-ECORD OF THE HISTORY, RELIGION, LITERATURE, AND CUS- TOMS OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE FOLLOWING EDITORIAL BOARD Cyrus Adler, Ph.
Departments of Post- Biblical Antiquities ; the Jews of America.
{Departments of the Talmud and Rabbinical Literature.
{Department of History from.
Department of the Bible.
Chairtnatt qfthe Board Joseph Jacobs, B.
Departments of the Jews of England and Anthropology ; Revising Editor.
Departments of Theology and Philosophy.
Herman Rosenthal Department of the Jews of Russia and Poland.
Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature.
Secretary of the Board William Popper, M.
Associate Revising Editor ; Chief of the Bureau of Translation ISIDORE SINGER, Ph.
Projector and Managing Editor ASSISTED BY AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOARDS OF CONSULTING EDITORS COMPLETE IN TWELVE VOLUMES EMBELLISHED WITH MORE THAN TWO THOUSAND ILLUSTR.
CCORD OF THE HISTORY, RELIGION, LITERATURE, AND CUS- TOMS OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists UNDER THE DlRECl'ION OF THE FOLLOWING EDITORIAL BOARD Cyrus Adler, Ph.
Departments of Post- Biblical Antiquities ; ike Jews of America.
Department of the Bible.
Chairfttan of the Board Joseph Jacobs, B.
Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature.
Secretary of the Board William Popper, M.
Associate Revising Editor; Chief of the Bufeau of Translation ISIDORE SINGER.
Departments of Post-Bihlical Antiquities and the Jews of America.
President of the American Jewish Historical Society ; Assistaiit Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.
Departments of the Talmud and Babhinical Literature.
Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.
Department of History from U9S to 1905.
Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; Editor of " Deborah.
Departments of History from Ezra to U9S and History of Post-Talmudic Literature.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York ; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library.
Department of the Bible.
Departments of the Jews of England and Anthropology ; Revising Editor.
Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England ; Author of " Jews of Angevin England," etc.
Departments of Theology and Philosophy.
President of Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New 4 />Department of the Jews of Russia amd Poland.
Chief of the Slavonic Department, New York Public Library.
Department of Modern Biography from 1750 to 1905.
CRAWFORD HOWEIiL TOY, D.
Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature.
Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Chairman of the Board.
Editor-in-Chief of the Standard Dictionary of the Atelier Cologne Bois Blonds (Ателье Кологне Буа Блондс) 100 ML Тестер Language, etc.
Secretary of the Board.
Associate Editor of the Standard Dictionary, "The Colum- bian Cyclopedia," etc.
Associate Revising Editor; Chief of the Bureau of Translation.
Gustav Gottheil Lecturer in Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York 1903-5 ; Author of " The Censorship of Hebrew Books.
DeceasedLate Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Emanu-El, New York.
DeceasedLate Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Phila- delphia, Pa.
DeceasedLate President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; Author of " Introduction to the Talmud.
IRA MAURICE PRICE, B.
JACOB VOORS ANGER, D.
FOREIGN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.
DUBNOW, Author of " Istoriya Yevreyev," Wilna, Russia.
BARON DAVID GUNZBTJRG, St.
ZADOC KAHN, Chief Rabbi of France; Honorary President of the Alliance Israelite Universelle ; Officer of the Legion of Honor, Paris, France.
DeceasedLate Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Berlin ; Meran, Austria.
ANATOLE LEROY-BEAULIEU, Member of the Institut de France ; Professor at the Free School of Political Science, Paris, France ; Author of " Israel Chez les Nations.
DeceasedLate Chief Rabbi of Padua; Late Professor of Hebrew at the University, Padua, Italy.
Chief Rabbi of Szegedin, Hungary ; Author of " Die Aramaischen Pflanzennamen.
ABBE PIETRO PERREATJ, Formerly Librarian of the Reale BibUot'eca Palatina, Parma, Italy.
John's College, Cambridge, England ; Editor of " Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," etc.
Moses, not Moslieh; Isaac, not Yizhak ; Saul, not Sha'ul or Shaiil; Solomon, not Shelomoh, etc.
The spellings of names that hare gained currency in English books on Jewish subjects, or that have become familiar to English readers, ai-e generally retained ; cross-references aie given when topics are ti-eated under forms ti-ansliterated according to the system tabulated below.
Hebrew subject-headings are transcribed according to the scheme of transliteration ; cross-refer- ences are made as in the case of pereonal names.
Dagesh forte is indi- cated by doubling the letter.
The Hebrew article is transcribed as ha, followed by a hyphen, without doubling the following letter.
Only the tliree vowels — a, i.
CHOOZIT SC 101 LYO 100 DCU мезо-термофильная 1000 Danisco) graphical exigencies have rendered occasional deviations from these systems necessary.
SYSTEMS OF TRANSLITERATION AND OF CITATION OF PROPER NAMES 3.
The Arabic article is invariably written al, no account being taken of the assimilation of the I to the following letter; e.
The article is joined by a hyphen to the following word.
At the end of words the feminine termination is written ah ; but when followed by a genitive, at ; e.
No account is taken of the overhanging vowels which distinguish the cases ; e.
C— Rules for the Transliteration of Russian.
All Russian names and words, except such as have become familiar to English readers in other forms, as Czar, Alexander, deciatine, Moscow, are transliterated according to the following system : Aa a Hh n mm shell B6 h Oo "hi.
Whenever possible, an author is cited under his most specific name; e.
Cross-references are freely made from any other form to the most specific one ; e.
When a person is not referred to as above, he is cited under his own personal name followed by his official or other title ; or, where he has borne no such title, by "of " followed by the place of his birth or residence ; e.
Names containing the words d', de, da, di, van, von, y, of, ben, ha.
Subjects on which further information is aflorded elsewhere in this work are indicated by the use of capitals and small capitals in the text ; as, Abba.
Aeika ; Pumbedita ; Vocalization.
N Abot de-R'abbi Natau 'Ab.
Zarah 'Abodah Zarah adloc at the place ; to the passage cited A.
H in the перейти на источник ol the Hegira Allg.
Allgemeine Zeit,ung des Judenthums Am.
Auierican Jewish Historical Society Lang.
Anglo-Jewish Association Apoc Apocalypse Apoor Apocrypha Apost.
Const Apostolical Constitutions 'Ar 'Arakin Talmud Arch.
Das Alte Testament A.
Tan — Bacher, Agada der 4 B.
B Itaba Batra Talmud B.
Rab Bibliotheca Rabblnica Bik Bikkurim Talmud B.
K Baba Kamma Talmud B.
M Baba Mezi'a Talmud BoletinAcad.
Isr — Bulletin of the Alliance Israflite Universelle c about Cant Canticles Song of Solomon Cat.
Catalogue of Anglo-Jewish Historical Ex- Hist.
A Corpus Inscrlptionum Atticarum C.
G Corpus Inscriptionum Grsecarum C.
H Corpus Inscriptionum Hebraicarum C.
L Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum CLP Corpus Inscriptionum Peloponnesi C.
S Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum comp compare Curinier, Diet.
Curinier, Dictiounaire National des Nat 1 Contemporains d died D Deuteronomist De Gubernatis, I De Gubernatis, Dizionario Blograflco degli Diz.
Biog Scrittori Contemporanei De Gubernatis, I De Gubernatis, Dictionnaire International Ecrivalns du Jour f des Eciivains du Jour Da le Rol, Juden- 1 De le Roi, Geschichte der Eyangelischen Mission I Juden-Mission Dem Demai Talmud npTOnhmiro- Hiof i Derenbourg, Essai sur I'Histoire et la Gfo- uerenoourg, uist.
De Rossi, Dlzlo- j De Rossi, Dizionario Storico degli Autori uario f Ebrel e delle Loro Opere De Rossi - Ham - De Rossi-Hamberger, Historisehes Worter- berger.
Driver, An Introduction to the Liter- tion f ature of the Old Testament E Elohlst Eccl Ecclesiastes Ecclus.
Sirach Eccleslasticus ed edition 'Eduy 'Eduyot Talmud Pispnherir TiinD- I Ludwlg Elsenberg's Grosses Biographisches jLisennerg, mog.
Brit Encyclopsedia Britannica Eng English Epiphanius, HD3res.
Eplphanlus, Adversus Haereses 'Er 'Erubin Talmud Ersch and I Erscli and Gruber, Allgemeine Encyklopadie Gruber, Encyc.
I der Wissenschaften und Kiinste Esd Esdras et seg and following Eusebius, Hist.
Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica Ewald, Gesch Ewald, Geschichte des Volkes Israel Frankel, Mebo Frankel, Mebo Yerushalmi Fiirst, Bibl.
Geiger's Wissenschaftliche Zeitschritt fiir Zeit.
Gibbon, History ot the Decline and Fall of and Fall I the Roman Empire Ginshiiro-'Q Tiihio i Ginsburg's Now Massoretlco-Critlcal Text GinsDurg s ijiDie.
Letterbode Israelitische Letterbode J Jahvist Jaarboeken Jaarboeken voor de Israeliten in Nederland Jacobs, Inquiry into the Sources of Spanish- Jewish History '' B?
Diet -j mudim, and Midrashim Jellinek.
H Jellinek, Bet ha-Midrash Jew.
Encyc The Jewish Encyclopedia Jew.
Jewish Historical Society of England Jew.
VForld Jewish World, London Josephus, Ant Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews Josephus, B.
J Josephus, De Bello Judaico Josephus, Contra Ap.
Josephus, Contra Apionem Josh Joshua Jost's Annalen Jost's Israelitische Annalen Jour.
Lit Journal of Biblical Literature J.
R Jewish Quarterly Review J.
I Levy, Chaldaisches Worterbuch liber die WOrterb I Targumlm 1 PTv Koiihov,!
Sb Ma'aser Sbeni Talmud Mace Maccabees Malmonides, Moreli.
Maimonides, Moreh Nebukim Maimonides, Yad.
Theological, and Ecclesiastical Liter- biiong, Ljc.
Teh Midrasb Tehillim Psalms Mik Mikwa'ot Talmud M.
MuUer, Fragmenta Uistoricorum Grseco- GfLec rum Mimk, Melanges.
Murray, A New English Dictionary Naz Nazir Talmud n.
T Neubauer, Geographic du Talmud Neubauer, M.
Neubauer, Medlseval Jewish Chronicles n.
T New Testament Oest.
Oesterreichische Wochenschrift Oh Ohalot Talmud Onk Onkelos Orient, Lit Literaturblatt des Orients O.
R Pesikta Rabbati Pirke R.
J Revue des Etudes Juives Rev.
Bib Revue Biblique Rev.
Tuno Tiict i Amador de los Rios, Historia.
Die Erdkuudc im Verhaltnis zur loiter, jiruKunae.
Later I Robinson, Later Biblical Researches in Pal- Researches r estine and the Adjacent Regions.
Sinai, and Arabia Petrsea.
I Roest, Catalog der Hebraica und Judaica Rosenthal.
V Revised Version Salfeld, Martyro- 1 Salfeld, Das Martyrologium des Niirnberger logium ' Wemorbuches Sanh Sanhedrin Talmud S.
E Sacred Books of the East c -a r.
Paul Haupt Schafl-Herzog, I Schafl-Herzog, A Religious Encyclopasdia Encvc I Schiller - Szinessy, I Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscript.
Cambridge f served in the Univereity Library, Cambridge Schrader, I Schrader, Cuneiform Inscriptions and the 0.
T i Old Testament, Eng.
B Schrader, Kellinschriftliche Bibliothek c.
Smith, Lectures on Religion of the Semites T.
Transactions of the Society of Biblical A r- Soc.
Bodl I Books in the Bodleian Library ot.
Onk Targum Onkelos Targ.
Yef Шлем боксерский Excalibur 714 L DNN Yenishalmi or Targum Jonathan Tern Temurah Talmud Ter Terumot Talmud Test.
Patr Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs Toh Tohorot Tos tosafot Tosef Tosefta Tr Transactions transl translation Tristram, Nat.
Tristram, Natural History of the Bible T.
Isr Uriivers Israelite Virchow's Archiv fiir Pathologische Anato- Virchow's Archive mie und Physiologie, und fur Klinische Medlzin Vulg Vulgate Weiss, Dor Weiss, Dor Dor we-Dorshaw Wellbausen, I Wellhausen, Israelitische und Jijclische 1.
G i Geschichte Winer, B.
V Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palastina-Vereins Zeb Zebahim Talmud Zedner, Cat.
Zedner, Catalogue of the Hebrew Books in Books Brit.
Zeitschrift fur Hebraische Bibliographie Zeitlin, Blbl.
Post- 1 Zeitlin, Bibliotheca Hebraica Post-Mendels- Mendels f sohniana Zunz, G.
S Zunz, Gesammelte Schriften Zunz, G.
P Zunz, Synagogale Poesie des Mittelalters Zunz, Z.
Zur Geschichte und Literatur CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME X A Cyrus Adler, Ph.
Bii Alexander Biichler, Ph.
G- Adolf Guttmaoher, Ph.
Gornfeld, Counselor at Law, St.
Ki Alexander Kisoh, Ph.
Porter, Formerly Associate Editor of "The Forum," New York; Revising Editor "Standard Cyclo- pedia" ; New York City.
Ta Aaron Tanzer, Ph.
W Albert Wolf, Dresden, Saxony, Germany.
El Benzion Eisenstadt, Teacher, New York City.
Fr Bernhard Friedberg- Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.
Gr Bernhard Greenfelder, St.
P Bernhard Pick, Ph.
John's Lutheran Church, New- ark, N.
Kubenstein, Eabhi, Har Sinai Temple, Baltimore, Md.
S Carl Siegfried, Ph.
Late Professor of Theology at the University of Jena, Germany.
D Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.
L David Leimdorfer, Ph.
Hermalin, Editor of tlie "Dally Jewish Herald" and " Volksadvocat," New York City; Brooklyn, N.
P David Phllipson, D.
Su David Sulzberger, Philadelphia, Pa.
C Executive Committee of the Editorial Board.
J Emil Jelinek, Vienna.
K Eduard Konig, Ph.
E Ezekiel Moses Ezekiel, Bombay, India.
Ms Edgar Mels, New York City.
X Eduard Keumann, Ph.
Soils, New York City.
So Emil Sohlesinger, Ph.
C Frank Cramer, B.
Cohen, Chief Minister, Sydney, N.
S Flaminio Servi deceased.
Late Chief Rabbi of Casale Monf errato, Italy ; Editor of "II Vessillo Israelitico.
G Richard Gottheil, Ph.
CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME X G.
Rosenthal, Electrical Engineer, St.
Herbert Cone, Counselor at Law, Albany, N.
L Goodman liipkind, B.
F Herbert Friedenwald, Ph.
Cj RecordingSecretaryof the American Jewish Historical Society, Philadelphia, Pa.
Fr Harry Friedenwald, M.
M Henry Malter, Ph.
H Henry Minor Huxley, A.
E Herman Ссылка на продолжение, Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.
S Henrietta Szold, Secretary of the Publication Committee of the Jewish Publication Society of America, New York City.
V Hermann Vog-elstein, Ph.
B Isaac Bloch, Chief Rabbi, Nancy, France.
Be Immanuel Benziuger, Ph.
Ber Israel Berlin, Chemist, New York City.
Offlee EditorDoctor of the University of Paris, France; for- merly Librarian of the Alliance Israfllte Uni- verselle, Paris, France ; New York City.
Briick, Teacher, Rogasen, Pusen, Germany.
Co Israel Cohen, London, England.
D Israel Davidson, Ph.
E Ismar Elbogen, Ph.
George Dobsevage, New York City.
H Isidore Harris, A.
Bril, Associate Editor of " The American Hebrew," New York City.
Lb Immanuel Low, Ph.
P Ira Maurice Price, Ph.
War Isidor Warsaw, Rabbi, WoodvlUe, Miss.
J Joseph Jacobs, B.
E Judah David Eisenstein, Author, New York City.
F Julius Frank, Rabbi, Oheb Shalom Reform Congregation, Reading, Pa.
Go Julius Gottlieb, M.
Hessen, Counselor at Lawl St.
Greenstone, Rabbi, Philadelphia, Pa.
Ka Jacques Kahn, Rabbi, Paris, France.
Leb Joseph Lebovich, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Lait, Journalist, Chicago, 111.
Myers, Rabbi, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
So Joseph Sohu, Contributor to " The New International En- cyclopedia " ; formerly Musical Critic on the New York " American and Journal " ; New York City.
Raisin, Rabbi, Gemilut Chesed Congregation, Fort Gibson, Miss.
Sto Joseph Stolz, D.
Ta Jacob Tauber, Ph.
L Jacob Zallel Lauterbaoh, Ph.
Offlee EditorRabbi, New York City.
K Kaufmanu Kohler, Ph.
CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME X L- A.
B Ludwigr Blau, Ph.
G Louis G-inzberg- Ph.
Lew Louis Lewiu, Ph.
V Ludwigr Venetianer, Ph.
Bu Moses Buttenwieser, Ph.
Co Max Cohen, Counselor at Law, New York City.
Franco, Principal, Alliance Israelite Universelle School, Demotica, Rumelia, Turkey.
K Meyer Kayserling- Ph.
Lau Max Landsberg- Ph.
B Moses Lob Bamberg'er, Ph.
Lib Morris Liber, Rabbi, Paris, France.
Mysh, Counselor at Law, St.
E Max Eosenthal, M.
So Max Sohloessing-er, Ph.
Schl Max Schlesing-er, Ph.
Sel Max Selig'sohn Office EditorDoctor of the University of Paris, France; New York City.
Sz Moritz Schwarz, Ph.
Knorr, New York City.
N Eeg'ina Neisser, Author, Breslau, Silesia, Germany.
P Eosalie Perles, Author, Konigsberg, East Prussia, Germany.
S Isidore Singer, Ph.
Fu Samuel Fuohs, Ph.
Lauchheimer, Counselor at Law, New York City.
Hurwitz, New York City.
Kahn, Rabbi, Nimes, France.
Kr Samuel Krauss, Ph.
O Schulim Ochser, Ph.
S Solomon Scheohter, M.
T Crawford Howell Toy, D.
C tTmberto Cassuto, Editor of " La Rivista Israelitica," Florence, Italy.
E Victor Eousseau Fmanuel, Laurel, Md.
E Vasili Eosenthal, Krementcbug, Russia.
B Wilhelm Baoher, Ph.
N Wilhelm Nowack, Ph.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME X N.
Cross-references in this list are to otlier items in the list, not to articles in the Encyclopedia.
PAGE Altneuschule, Exterior and Interior Views of the, at Prague 156-158 America: see Richmond.
Amsterdam, Interior of a Synagogue at.
Architecture: see Prague; Rashi Chapel; Rome; Rothschild "Stammhaus"; Synagogues.
Baer, Seligman, Page from the Siddur Edited by, ROdelheim, 1868 177 Bassevi House, Court of the, Prague 161 Betrothal Rings 438, 429 Bible, Hebrew, 4 from the.
Printed at Riva di Treuto, 1561 433 see also Psalms.
Bragadini, Printer's Mark of the 203 Brisbane, Queensland, Synagogue at 386 Catacombs at Rome, Entrance to the Ancient Jewish 446 Cavalli of Venice, Printer's Mark of 203 Cemeteries at Saint Petersburg, Views of the Old and Modern 643, 645 Cemetery at Prague, Tombstones in ,the Old Jewish 165 4 of, on Josefstrasse 163 Censored Page from Hebrew Psalms with Kimhi's Commentary, Naples, 1487 347 Ceremonial: see Phylacteries ; Purim; Rings; Sabbath; Sacrifice; Salonica.
Chair, Rashi's, at Worms 337 Chairs from Synagogues at Rome 456-458 Coin, So-Called, of Solomon428 Coins, Polish, with Hebrew Characters563, 563 Colophon Page from the First Edition of Rashi on the Pentateuch, Reggio, 1475 329 Costumes of Dutch Jews, Seventeenth Century 371-374 and Frontispiece of German Jews, Sixteenth and Eighteenth Centuries 188 of Prague Jews, Eighteenth Century 154-156 of Salonica Jews 658 of Samarcand Jewess 668 of Samaritans 672, 678 Elijah, Chair of, in a Synagogue at Rome 458 England : see Portsmouth.
LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME X PAGE Fagius, Paul, of Isny, Printer's Mark of 202 Farissol, Abi-aham, lUuminated First Page of a Siddur, Written at Ferrara, 1528, by 175 First Editions: Coloplion Page from Rashi on the Penlateuch, Reggio, 1475 329.
Page from tlie First Illustrated Printed Haggadah, Prague, 1526 167 " Five Synagogues," The, of the Old Ghetto at Rome 451 Foa, Tobiah, of Sabbionetta, Printer's Mark of 203 Frankfort-on-the-Main, The Rothschild " Stammhaus "at 490 Germany : see Pkesbubg ; Ratisbon.
Gersonides of Prague, Printer's Mark of 303 Ghetto: see Prague; Rome; Safbd; Salonica; Samakoand.
Haggadah, Page from the First Illustrated Printed, Prague, 1526 167 Page from Passover, of 1695, Depicting the Ten Plagues 71 " Haman Klopf ers " Used on Purim by Jewish Children of Russia 276 Host Desecration at Presburg, 1591 188 Incunabula : see Naples ; Reggio.
Inscription, Ancient Samaritan 670 Royal Stamp on Jar-Handle, Discovered in Palestine 148 see also Coins.
Italy : see Pisa ; Rome.
Karaite Siddur, Page from.
Printed at Budapest, 1903 179 KOuigliche Weinberge, near Prague, Interior of the Synagogue at 160 Manuscript : see Pratek-Book.
Map of Pithom-Heroopolis 63 Showing the Road System of Palestine 435 see also Plan.
Marriage Rings 428, 429 Midrash Tehillim, Title-Page from, Prague, 1613 249 Music: "Rahem na 'Alaw " 310 Musical Instruments : see Pipes.
Naples, Censored Page from Hebrew Psalms with Kimhi's Commentary, Printed in 1487 at 247 New York, Title-Page from Isaac Pinto's Translation of the Prayer-Book, Printed in 1766 at 55 Octavian, Arch of, the Entrance to the Old Ghetto at Rome 449 Pale of Settlement, Map of Western Russia Showing the Jewish 531 Palestine, Map Showing the Road System of 435 see also PoTTEKY ; Safed; Samaria; Samaritans.
Phillips, Henry Mayer, American Lawyer and Politician 4 Jonas, American Revolutionary Patriot 4 Phylacteries and Bags 21, 22, 25, 26 and Their Arrangement on Head and Arm 34 Picart, Bernard, Title-Page from the " Tikkun Soferim, " Designed by 29 Pierleoni, Tomb of, in the Cloisters of St.
Paul, Rome 33 Pinsker, Lev, Russian Physician 52 Pinto, Isaac, Title-Page from His Translation of the Prayer-Book, Printed at New York, 1766 55 Pipes in Use in Palestine 57 Pisa, Old Tombstones from the Jewish Cemetery at gl Pithom-Heroopolis, Map of 63 Plagues, The Ten, According to a Passover Haggadah of 1695 71 Plan of the City of Prague in 1649, Showing Position of Jewish Quarter 153 of the Ghetto at Rome, 1640 447 Platea Judsea of the Old Ghetto at Rome 448 Poltava, Russia, Synagogue at 119 Ponte, Lorenzo da, Italian- American Man of Letters 124 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME X Portraits: see PHILLIPS, Henry Mayer.
Rothschild, Baron Lionel Nathan.
PAGE Portsmouth, England, Interior of Synagogue at 135 Possart, Ernst von, German Actor and Author 146 Pottery Discovered in Palestine 148, 149 Prague, Altneuschule at.
Eighteenth Century 156 Jewish Cemetery on Josefstrasse ссылка на страницу Plan of the City of, in 1649, Showing Position of Jewish Quarter 153 Procession of Jews of, in Honor адрес страницы the Birthday of Archduke Leopold, May 17, 1716 154 Purim Players at, Early Eighteenth Century 276 Rabbiner Gasse 162 Shames Gasse 163 Tombstones in the Old Jewish Cemetery at 165 Wechsler Gasse Synagogue 159 Typography : Page from the First Illustrated Printed Haggadah, 1526 167 Title-Page from Midrash Tehillim, 1613 249 Prayer-Book : Colophon Page of the Siddur Rab Amram, Written in 1506 at Traui 173 Illuminated First Page of a Siddur, Written by Abraham Farissol, Ferrara, 1528 175 Karaite Siddur, Budapest, 1903 179 Page from the Baer Siddur, RSdelheim, 1868 177 Title-Page from Isaac Pinto's Translation of the.
Jacob Mercui'ia, Riva di Trento 303 of Judah Lob ben Moses, Prague 203 — of Melr ben.
From Leusden, 1657 375 at Prague, Early Eighteenth Century 376 Queensland : see Bkisbane.
Babbiner Gasse, Prague '"3 Rabbinovicz, Raphael, Talmudical Scholar 398 Rabinovich, Osip, Russian Author and.
Paul at 33 Rothschild, Baron Alphonse, Present Head of the French House 498 Baron James, Founder of the French House ,501 Baron Lionel Nathan, Financier and First Jewish Member of English Parliament 501 Mayer Amschel, Founder of the Rothschild Family 49O LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME X PAGE Rothschild, Nathan Mayer, Founder of the English House 494 " A Pillar of the Exchange.
Sabbath, Device for Keeping Water and Food Warm on 594 Eve Ceremonies in a German Jewish Home of the Eighteenth Centiu-y 593 Light, Candlestick Used in Blessing the 591 Sachs, Michael, German Rabbi 613 Senior, Russian Hebraist 614 Sacrifice, Samaritan Place of 673 Safed, View of the Jewish Quarter at 634 Saint Petersburg, Russia, Synagogue at 641 Views of the Old and Modern Cemeteries at 643, 645 Salant, Samuel, Jerusalem Rabbi 647 Salomon, Qotthold, German Rabbi 658 Salomons, Sir David, English Politician and Communal Worker 656 Salonica, Group of Jews of 658 Scene in the Old Jewish Quarter at 657 Samarcand, High Street in Old, Showing the Ghetto 667 Jewess of 668 Samaria, View of, from the Southeast 669 Samaritan Characters.
Ancient Inscription in 670 Place of Sacrifice 673 Samaritans at Prayer 674 Groups of 673, 678 Shames Gasse, Prague 163 Siddur: see Pkater-Book.
Solomon, So-Called Coin of 203 Soncino, Printer's Mark of 203 Synagogues: see Amsterdam; Brisbake; Poltava; Portsmoith; Prague; Richmokd; Riga; Rome; Saikt Petersburg.
Tefillin and Bags 21-26 Title-Page from Isaac Pinto's Translation of the Piayer-Book, New York, 1766 55 from Midrash Tehillim, Prague, 1613 349 from the "Tikkun Soferim," Designed by Bernard Picart 29 Tomb of Pierleoni in the Cloisters of St.
Paul, Rome 33 of Rachel, Traditional 306 Tombstones from the Old Jewish Cemetery at Pisa 61 from the Old Jewish Cemetery at Prague 165 Types: see Salonica; Samarcand; Samaritans.
Typography: see Genoa; Naples; New York; Picart ; Praguk; Printer's iMAKK; Raziel; Reggio.
TJsque, Abraham, Printer's Mark of 303 Worms, Exterior, Interior, and C'loss-Suctional Views of the Rashi Chapel at 324-326 ZalmazL of Amsterdam, Printer's Mark of 303 THE Jewish Encyclopedia PHILIPS ON, DAVID : American rabbi ; born at Wabash, Ind.
He is also pro- fessor of homiletics at the Hebrew Union College.
Philipson has held many olBces of a public nature in Cincinnati.
He has been a trustee of the Asso- ciated Charities since 1890 ; trustee of the Home for Incurables 1894-1902 ; director of the Ohio Humane Society since 1889 and of the United Jewish Charities since 1896 ; corresponding secretary of the Central Conference of American Rabbis 1889- 1892; 1894-98and director of the same society since 1898 ; governor of the Hebrew Union College since 1893 ; director of the American Jewish His- torical Society since 1897 ; member of the publica- tion committee of the Jewish Publication Society since 1895 ; and president of the Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America since 1894.
He Is the author of " Progress of the Jewish Re- form Movement in the United States," in "J.
PHILISTINES : A people that occupied 4 tory on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, south- west of Jerusalem, previously to and contemporane- ously with the life of the kingdoms of Israel.
Their northern boundary reached to the " borders of Ekron, " and their southwestern limit was the Shihor, or brook of Egypt Wadi al-'Arishas described in Josh.
Their territory extended on the east to about Beth-shemesh I Sam.
It was a wide, fertile plain stretching up to the Judean hills, and adapted to a very productive agriculture.
There are found the giants or Anakim in Joshua's day and even down to David's time in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod.
It must be con- cluded, too, from Joshua's conquests that the Ca- naanites were to be met with here and there through- out this territory.
It is also to be Territory, presumed from the records that other peoples, such as the Amalekites and the Geshurites, lived near this territory if they did not actually mingle with the Philistines.
Who were the Philistines proper?
The Biblical record states that they came from Caphtor Amos ix.
The table of nations Gen.
The gist of these references leads one to look for Caphtor as the native land of the Philistines.
There is a variety of opinion as to the location of this place.
The Egyptian inscriptions name the southern coast of Asia Minor as " Kef to.
The Septuagint makes the Clierethites in David's body-guard Cretans.
Others have identified Caphtor with Cappadocia, or Cyprus, or with some place near the Egyptian delta.
The prevailing opinion among scholars is that the Philistines were roving pirates from some northern coast on the Mediterranean Sea.
Finding a fertile plain south of Joppa, they landed and forced a foothold.
Their settlement was made by such a gradual process that they adopted both the language and the religion of the conquered peoples.
When did the Philistines migrate and seize their territory in this maritime plain?
The inscriptions of Rameses III.
Among these foreigners are found the Zakkal from Cyprus, and the Purusati Pulusata, Pulista, or Purosatha.
Both have Greek features; and the second are identified with the Philistines.
In the inscription of this Egyptian king, they are said to have conquered all of north- ern Syria west of the Euphrates.
It is known, too, that the successors of Rameses III.
It is supposed that during this period Philistines Phillips THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA the Purusati, accompanied bj' their families, were pushed or crowded out of their homes by the national migrations from the northeast in Asia Minor, and, coming both by land and by sea, secured a foothold in southwestern Palestine.
The time of this supposed settlement was thatof the twentiethdynastyof Egypt.
Of course their first settlements were on a small scale, and probably under Egyptian suzerainty.
Later, as Egypt lost her grip on Asia, the Puru- sati became independent and multiplied in numbers and strength until they could easily make good their claim to the region in which they had settled.
According to the Old Testament, the Philistines were in power in their new land at least as early as the Exodus Ex.
During the period of the Judges they were a thorn in the side of Israel Judges iii.
They were so well organized politically, with their five great capitals, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza, and a lord over each with its surrounding district, that Israel in its earlier history was put to a decided disadvantage I Нажмите для продолжения />Their supremacy over Saul's realm ib.
Saul's defeat of them at Michmash {ib.
Not until David's assumption of supremacy over all Israel and after two hard battles were the Philis- tines compelled to recognize the rule of their former subjects.
This broke their Conquered нажмите для деталей so effectually that they never by entirely recovered.
After the disrup- David.
During this en- tire period they are found exercising the same hos- tility toward the Israelites Amos i.
In this same period the Assyrian conquerors mention sev- eral Philistine cities as objects of their attacks.
The crossing and recrossing of Philistines territory by the armies of Egypt and Asia finally destroyed the Philistines as a separate nation and people ; so that when Cambyses the Persian crossed their former territory about 52.
The Philistines' language was apparently Semitic, the language of the peoples they conquered.
Their religion, too, was most likely Semitic, as they are found worshiping the deities met with lianguag'e among other Semitic peoples.
They and Gov- were governed, in Israel's early his- ernment.
Their array was well organized and brave, and consisted of in- fantry, cavalry, and chariotry.
In fine, they were a civilized people as far back as they can be traced ; and as such they became relatively strong and wealthy in their fertile plains.
They engaged in commerce, and in their location became thoroughly acquainted with the great peoples of their times.
Their dis- appearance as a nation from history occurred about the time of the conquest of Cyrus.
Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land, ch.
Beecher, In Hastings, Diet.
The genealogical tree of the family is given on page 3.
He was well known for his studies inf oik -lore, philology, and numismatics, both in the United States and in Europe.
Two gold medals were conferred upon him by Italian societies for his writings.
He was treas- urer 1863 and secretary 1868 of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia, and a sec- retary from 1880 and the librarian from 1885 of the American Philosophical Society, as well as member of many other learned societies at home and abroad.
Phillips' works on the paper currency of the American colonies and on American Continental money were the first on those subjects.
His works have been cited by the United States Supreme Court in a decision on the " Legal Tender Cases.
Morals, "The Jews of Philadelphia," s.
Henry Mayer Phillips : American lawyer, congressman, and financier; son of Zalegman and Arabella Phillips; born in Philadelphia June 30, 1811, where he attended a private school and the.
Phillips was admitted to the bar Jan.
Immediately after his admission he accepted the po- sition of clerk of the Court of Common Pleas.
In Dec, 1841, he was elected solicitor of the dis- trict of Spring Garden.
In the October election of 1856 he was chosen a member of the thirty-fifth Congress and served during 1857-59.
He addressed the House of Representatives on the https://prognozadvisor.ru/100/kanalniy-konditsioner-daikin-fbq71c8-rzqg71l9v.html of Kansas into the Union under the Le Compton Con- stitution on March 9, 1858, and on June 13 he spoke on the expenditures and revenues of the country.
In Dec, 1858, he was elected grand master of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the- State of Pennsylvania, and was reelected in 1859 and 1860.
P Phillips Phillips, Morris THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Henry M.
Altamont Phillips, and subsequently became its treasurer.
The Court of Common Pleas appointed him a member of the board of park commissioners May 13, 1867, and March 13, 1881, he was elected presi- dent of the board.
He was appointed a member of the board of city trusts Sept.
In 1870 Phillips was appointed a member of the commission for the construction of a bridge crossing the Schuylkill River.
He was one of the original members of the Public Buildings Com- mission established in 1870, but resigned the next year.
In 1870 he was chosen a director of the Academy of Music, became its presi- dent in 1872, and resigned in 1884.
He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in Jan.
He became a director of the Pennsylvania Company for Insurance on Lives and Granting Annuities on Oct.
Phillips was a member of the Sephardic Spanish and Portuguese Congregation Mickve Israel of Philadelphia.
In former years, more especially in the period from 1836 to 1851, "he took considerable interest in its affairs, taking an active part in the controversy between Isaac Leeser and the congre- gation ; his efforts were largely instrumental in elect- ing Sabato Morals as minister of the congregation on April 13, 1851.
Isaac Phillips : Lawyer ; born in New York June 16, 1813; died there 1889; son of Naphtali Phillips.
He was appointed by President Pierce appraiser of the port of New York, which position he occupied for many years, and he was well known politically.
He took a deep interest in educational matters, being a commissioner of the New York board of education ; he was likewise the editor of va- rious newspapers in the city of New York, grand master of the freemasons of the state of New York, and an active member of the New York Chamber of Commerce.
He married нажмите чтобы перейти Sophia Phillips and 2 Miriam Trimble.
Jonas Phillips : The first of the family to settle in America ; born 1736, the place of his birth being va- riously given as Busick and Frankfort-on-the-Main ; died at Philadelphia, Pa.
He emigrated to America from London in Nov.
C, where he was employed by Moses Lindo.
He soon removed to Albany, and thence, shortly afterward, to New York, where he engaged in mercantile pur- suits.
As early as 1760 he was identified with a lodge of freemasons in that city.
In 1763 he mar- ried Rebecca Mendez Machado see Ma- CHADO.
In 1769 he became a freeman of New York.
At the outbreak of the American Revo- lution Phillips fa- vored the patriot cause ; and he was an ardent supporter of the Non-Importation Ссылка на страницу in 1770.
In 1776 he used his influence in the New York congregation to close the doors https://prognozadvisor.ru/100/fotoapparat-olympus-mju-5010.html the synagogue and re- move rather than continue under the British.
The edifice was abandoned ; and, with the majority of the congregation, Phillips removed to Philadelphia, where he continued in business until 1778.
In that year he joined the Revolutionary army, serving in the Philadelphia Militia under Colo- nel Bradford.
When Congregation Mickve Israel was estab- lished in Philadelphia, Phillips was one of its active founders, and was its president at the consecration of its synagogue In 1783.
After the Revolution he removed to New York, but soon returned to Phila- delphia, where he continued to reside until his death.
His remains, however, were interred at New York in the cemetery, on New Bowery, of Congregation Shearith Israel.
His widow survived until 1831.
Of his twenty-one children, special mention should be made of the following six : 1 Rachel Phillips: Born 1769; died 1839; married Michael Levy, and was the mother of Com- modore Uriah P.
Levy of the United States navy.
One year after her death he married Esther b.
Phillips was the proprietor of the "National Advocate," a New York newspaper, and was also president of Congregation Shearith Israel in that city.
He served in the War of 1813.
Phillips : Actor and playwright ; born in Philadelphia; died at New York in 1836.
He made his first appearance at the Park Theater, New York, in 1815, and was successful in Shakes- peare's "Comedy of Errors.
Daly, "Settle- THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Phillips Phillips, Horris ment of the Jews in North America," pp.
He was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1795, and became one of the leading criminal lawyei's of Philadelphia.
Jonas Altamont Phillips: Lawyer; born at Philadelphia 1806 ; died there 1862 ; brother of Henry M.
He became prominent as a lawyer, and in 1847-48 was the Democratic candidate for the mayoralty of Philadelphia.
President Buchanan is said to have tendered him the position of judge of the United States District Court, which he declined.
In 1837 he married Frances Cohen of Charleston, B.
Phillips : Dramatist ; born Oct.
He became known as a dramatist as early as 1833.
Among the plays he produced were : " Cold Stricken" 1838"Camillus," and "The Evil Eye.
Phillips : Born 1817; died 1874; son of Naphtali Phillips.
He was chief of the volunteer fire department in the city of New York for many years, and president of the board of councilmen and acting mayor in 1857.
Naphtali Taylor Phillips : Lawyer ; born in New York Dec.
He has held various political offices, e.
He is also a trustee of the American Scenic and His- toric Preservation Society, and a member of the Sons of the American Revolution and of the New York Historical Society.
He is treasurer of the Jew- ish Historical Society and has contributed several papers to its publications.
For fifteen years he has been clerk of Congregation Shearith Israel.
In 1892 Phillips married Rosalie Solomons, daughter of Adolphus S.
Phillips is an active member of the Daughters of the American Revo- lution.
Bibliography : Charles P.
Daly, Settlement of the Jews in North America, New Tork, 1893 ; Isaac Markens, The He- hrews in America, ib.
Morals, The Jews of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, 1894: H.
Eosenbach, The Jews in Phtiadelphia, 1883; N.
Taylor Phillips, In Piibl.
HUhner, New York Jews in the Struggle far American Independence ; Pennsylvania As- sociatnrs and Militia in the Bevolution, i.
PHILLIPS, BARNET : born in Philadelphia Nov.
United States, Phillips joined American journalist; 1828; educated at the Philadelphia, whence Shortly afterward he continued his studies On his return to the the staff of the по этому сообщению New York Times " and published two books, " The Strug- gle " and https://prognozadvisor.ru/100/perforator-setevoy-energomash-pe-25180-5-dzh.html Burning Their Ships.
PHILLIPS, SIR BENJAMIN SAMUEL: Lord mayor of London ; born in London in 1811 ; died there Oct.
He was a son of Samuel Phillips, tailor, and was educated at Neumegen's school at Highgate and Kew.
He then became an active worker in the community, being elected president of the Institution for the Relief of the Jewish Indigent Blind in 1850 and president of the Hebrew Literary Society.
He rendered im- portant services in the foundation of the United Synagogue, of which he was elected a life-member in June, 1880.
For thirty years Phillips was a mem- ber of the Board of Deputies as representative of the Great and Central synagogues ; he served as a member of the Rumanian Icp Das GW-7553-CPM Шлюз PROFIBUS в CANopen, and was a vice-president of the Anglo-Jewish Association.
Benjamin Phillips will be chiefly remembered for the prominent part he took in the struggle for the removal of Jewish disabilities.
In 1846 he was elected a member of the common council as repre- sentative of the ward of Farringdon Within.
After being returned at every subsequent election, lie was elected alderman of the ward in 1857.
In 1859 he held the office of sheriff, and on Sept.
He performed the duties of mayor with marked distinction, and the King of the Belgians, whom he entertained, conferred upon him the Order of Leopold.
During his mayoralty he rendered considerable help in personally raising £70,000 toward the great Cholera Fund.
In recog- nition of these services he was knighted by Queen Victoria.
In 1888, owing to advancing years, he re- tired from the court of aldermen, being succeeded in the office by his second son, Alderman Sir George Fatjdbl-Phillips, who was unanimously elected.
Sir Benjamin Phillips was for many years a mem- ber of the Spectacle-Makers Company of which he was master and was on the commission for the Lieu- tenancy of the City of London.
One of the most prominent and in- fluential residents of Jamaica, he held the chief magistrateship of the privy council and other im- portant жмите сюда ofiices on the island.
During the anxious period known as the " Saturnalia of Blood " Phillips especially conserved the interests of the col- ony by his gentle and calm demeanor at councils of state.
Bibliography : Falmouth Gazette JamaicaDec.
PHILLIPS, MORRIS : American journalist and writer ; born in London, England, May 9, 1834.
Phillips, Philip Philo Judseus TPIE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Phillips received his elementary education in Cleve- land, Ohio, and later continued his studies under private tutors in New York.
He studied for the legal profession, first in Buffalo and later in New York.
But the opportunity being open to him of association with Nathaniel Parker Willis as joint editor of the "New York Home Journal," he em- braced it at once, and from Sept.
Phillips was a prolific writer and an extensive traveler; as such he held commissions as special correspondent for several daily newspapers, and published in many magazines the fruits of his observations.
PHILLIPS, PHILIP: American jurist; born in Charleston, S.
C, Dec, 17, 1807; died in Wash- ington, D.
He was educated at the Norwich Military Academy in Vermont and at Middletown, Conn.
He then studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1829, settling in Cheraw, S.
He was a member of the Nullification Con- vention of 1883.
Elected to the state legislature in 1834, he resigned in 1835 and moved to Mobile, Ala.
He was president of the Alabama State Convention in 1837, and was elected to the state legislature in 1844, being re- elected in 1853.
In 1853-55 he was a member of Congress from Alabama.
He then moved to Wash- ington, where lie continued his profession until the Civil war, when he migrated to New Orleans.
After the war he returned to Washington and resided there until his death.
In 1840 he prepared a " Digest of Decisions of the Supreme Court of Alabama," and he wrote " Practise of the Supreme Court of the United States.
L PHILLIPS, PHINEAS: Polish merchant; flourished about 1775.
He held the position of chief of the Jewish community at Krotoschin, at that time a fief of the princes of Thurn and Taxis.
The reigning prince held Phillips in considerable esteem and entrusted him with personal commissions.
In the course of business Phillips attended the Leipsic fairs and those held in other important Con- tinental cities.
In 1775 he extended his travels to England.
Once there, he settled for some time in London, where he carried on an extensive business in indigo and gum.
After his death, while on a visit to his native town his son Samuel Phillips established himself in London and became the father of Sir Benjamin Phillips and grandfather of Sir George Paudel- Phillips, Bart.
PHILLIPS, SAMUEL: English journalist; born at London 1815; died at Brighton Oct.
He was the son of an English merchant, and at fif- teen years of age made his debut as an actor at Cov- ent Garden.
Influential friends then placed him at Cambridge, whence he passed to Gottingen Uni- versity.
Phillips then came to London, and in 1841 turned his attention to literature and journalism.
His earliest work was a romance entitled "Caleb Stukeley," which appeared in "Blackwood's Maga- zine " and was reijrinted in 1843.
Its success led to furtlier contributions to "Blackwood's," including " We Are All Low People There " and other tales.
Phillips continued to write for periodicals, and he was subsequently admitted as literary critic to the staff of the " Times.
Stowe, and other popular writers were boldly assailed by the anonymous critic, whose articles became the talk of the town.
In 1853 and 1854 two volumes of his literary essays were published anonymously.
Phillips was also associated with the " Morning Herald " and " John Bull.
In connection with the Palace he wrote the "Guide" and the "Portrait Gallery.
PHILO JTJD-ffiXJS: Alexandrian philosopher; born about 20 B.
The few biographical details concerning him that have been preserved are found in his own works especially in "Legatio ad Caium," §§ 23, 28; ed.
The only event that can be deter- mined chronologically is his participation in the embassy which the Alexandrian Jews sent to the emperor Caligula at Rome for the purpose of asking protection against the attacks of the Alexandrian Greeks.
This occurred in the year 40 c.
Philo included in his philosophy both Greek wisdom and Hebrew religion, which he sought to fuse and harmonize by means of the art of allegory that he had learned from the Stoics.
His work was not ac- cepted by contemporary Judaism.
Greek science, suppressed by the victorious Phariseeism Men.
His Works : The Church Fathers have preserved most of Philo's works that are now extant.
These are chiefly страница on the Pentateuch.
As Ewald has pointed out, three of Phflo's chief works lie in this field comp.
Siegfried, " Abhandlung zur Kritik der Schriften Philo's," 1874, p.
It can not now be determined how far he carried out this method.
Only the following fragments have been preserved: passages In Armenian in explanation of Genesis and THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Phillips, Philip Philo Judaeus Exodus, an old Latin translation of a part of tlie "Genesis," and fragments from the Greek text in the "Sacra Parallela," in the "Catena," and also in Ambrosius.
The explanation is confined chiefly to determining the literal sense, although Philo fre- quently refers to the allegorical sense as the higher.
According to Commen- Philo's original idea, the history of tary.
This great commen- tary included the following treatises: 1 "De AUe- goriis Legum," books i.
Von Arnim, " Quellenstudien zu Philo von Alexandria," 1899, pp.
{Jacob's dreams ; " De Somniis," book ii.
Philo's three other books on dreams have been lost.
The first of these on the dreams of Abimelech and Laban preceded the present book i.
On a doxographic source used by Philo in book i.
The exposition of the Law then follows in two sections.
First come the biographies of the men who antedated the several written laws of the Torah, as Enos, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
These were the Patriarchs, who were the living impersonations of the active law of virtue before there were any written laws.
Then the laws are discussed in detail: first the chief On the ten commandments the DecaloguePatriarchs, and then the precepts in amplification of each law.
Tlie work is divided into the following treatises: 1 "De Opificio Mundi" comp.
Siegfried in "Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaft- liche Theologie," 1874, pp.
Cohn's im- portant separate edition of this treatise, Breslau, 1889, preceded the edition of the same in " Philonis Alexan- drini," etc.
The lives of Isaac and Jacob have been lost.
The three patriarchs were intended as types of the ideal cosmopolitan condition of the world.
The latter point may be ad- mitted; but the question still remains whether it is necessary to regard the matter in this light.
It seems most natural to preface the discussion of the law with the biography of the legislator, while the transition from Joseph to the legislation, frpm the statesman who has nothing to do with the divine laws to the discussion of these laws themselves, is forced and abrupt.
Moses, as the perfect man, unites in himself, in a way, all the faculties of the patriarchal types.
As the person awaiting the divine revelation, he is also specially fitted to announce it to others, after having received it in the form of the On the Commandments i'i.
To the first and second commandments he adds the laws relating to priests and sacrifices ; to the third mis- use of the name of Godthe laws on oaths, vows, etc.
Fhllo JudaeuB THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA the laws on respect for parents, old age, etc.
Ritter, "Philo und die Halacha," Leipsic, 1879, and Sieg- fried's review of the same in the "Jenaer Litera- turzeitung," 1879, No.
The first hook includes the following treatises of the current editions: "De Circumcisione " ; "De Monarchia," books i.
The second book includes in the editions a sec- tion also entitled " De Specialibus Legibus " ii.
The greater part of the missing portion was supplied, under the title " De Cophini Festo et de Colendis Parentibus," by Mai 1818and was printed in Richter's edition, v.
The com- plete text of the second book was published by Tischendorf in his "Philonea" pp.
The third book is included under the title " De Speciali- bus Legibus " in ed.
The fourth book also is entitled "De Specialibus Legibus"; to it the last sections are added under the titles " De Judice " and "De Concupiscentia " in the usual edi- tions; and they include, also, as appendix, the sec- tions " De Justitia " and " De Creatione Princi- pum.
This is the conclusion of the exposition of the Mosaic law.
Independent Works: 1 "Quod Omnis Probus Liber," the second half of a work on the freedom of the just according to Stoic principles.
The genu- ineness of this work has been disputed by Prankel in "Monatsschrift," ii.
Now Wendland, Ohle, Schilrer, Massebieau, and Krell consider it genuine, with the exception of the partly interpolated passages on the Essenes.
This account, consisting originally of five books, has been preserved in fragments only see Schilrer, I.
Philo intended to show the fearful punishment meted out by God to the persecutors of the Jews on Philo's predilection for similar discussions see Siegfried, "Philo von Al- exandria, " p.
The meaning of the title is open to discussion ; it may be identical with the follow- ing No.
For a list of the lost works of Philo see Schilrer, I.
Other Works Ascribed to Pliilo : 1 "De Vita Con- templativa" on the different titles comp.
This work describes the mode of life and the religious festivals of a society of Jewish ascetics, who, according to the author, are widely scattered over the earth, and are found especially in every nome in Egypt.
The writer, however, confines himself to describing a colony of hermits settled on the Lake Mareotis in Egypt, where each lives separately in his own dwelling.
Six days of the week they spend in pious contemplation, chiefly in connection with Scripture.
On the sev- enth day both men and women assemble together in a hall ; and the leader delivers a discourse consist- ing of an allegorical interpretation of a Scriptural passage.
The feast of the fiftieth day is especially celebrated.
The ceremony begins with a frugal meal consisting of bread, salted vegetables, and water, during which a passage of Scripture is inter- preted.
After the meal the members of the society in turn sing religious songs of various kinds, to which the assembly answers with a refrain.
The ceremony ends with a choral representation of the triumphal festival that Moses and Miriam arranged after the passage through the Red Sea, the voices of the men and the women uniting in a choral symphony until the sun rises.
After a common morning prayer each goes home to resume his contemplation.
Such is the contemplative life {Bio BsaprjTiicd; led by these QEpanEvrai " servants of Yhwh ".
The ancient Church looked upon these Therapeutse as disguised Christian monks.
This view has found advocates even in very recent times; Lucius' opin- ion particularly, that the Christian monkdom of the third century was here glorified in a Jewish disguise, was widely accepted "Die Therapeuten," 1879.
But the ritual of the society, which was entirely at variance with Christianity, disproves this view.
The chief ceremony especially, the choral represen- tation of the passage through the Red Sea, has no special significance for Christianity ; nor have there ever been in the Christian Church nocturnal festi- vals celebrated by men and women "DeVita together.
But Massebieau "Revue Contempla- de I'Histoire des Religions," 1887, xvi.
But there are great dissimilarities between the funda- mental conceptions of the author of the " De Vita Contemplativa " and those of Philo.
The latter looks upon Greek culture and philosophy as allies, the former is hostile to Greek philosophy see Sieg- fried in "Protestantische Kirchenzeitung," 1896, No.
THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Fhilo Judseus 43.
He repudiates a science that numbered among its followers the sacred band of the Pythagoreans, inspired men like Parmenides, Empedocles, Zeno, Cleanthes, Heraclitus, and Plato, -whom Philo prized "Quod Omnis Probus," i.
He considers the symposium a detestable, common drinking-bout.
This can not be explained as a Stoic diatribe ; for in this case Philo would not have repeated it.
It must furthermore be remem- bered that Philo in none of his other works men- tions these colonies of allegorizing ascetics, in which he would have been highly interested had he known of them.
But pupils of Philo may subsequently have founded near Alexandria similar colonies that endeavored to realize his ideal of a pure life tri- umphing over the senses and passions; and they might also have been responsible for the one-sided development of certain of the master's principles.
While Philo desired to renounce the lusts of this world, he held fast to the scientific culture of Hel- lenism, which the author of this book denounces.
Bernays' investigations there has been no doubt that this work is spurious.
Its Peri- patetic basic idea that the world is eternal and in- destructible contradicts all those Jewish teachings that were for Philo an indisputable presupposition.
Bernays has proved at the same time that the text has been confused through wrong pagination, and he has cleverly restored it " Gesammelte Abhand- lungen, " 1885, i.
Origen enlarged it by adding New Testament names ; and Jerome revised it.
On the etymology of names occurring in Philo's exegetical works see be- low.
It narrates Biblical history from Adam to Saul see Schurer, I.
CTiltural Basis : Philo, of Jewish descent, was by birth a Hellene, a member of one of those colonies, organized after the conquests of Alexander the Great, that were dominated by Greek language and culture.
The vernacular of these colonies, Hellenistic Greek proper, was every- where corrupted by idiotisms and solecisms, and in specifically Jewish circles by Hebraisms and Semi- tisms, numerous examples of which are found in the Septuagint, the Apocrypha, and the New Testa- ment.
The educated classes, however, had created for themselves from the classics, in the so-called KOLvrj SiaAEKTog, a purer medium of expression.
In the same way Philo formed his language by means of extensive reading of the classics.
Scholars at an early date pointed out resemblances to Plato Suidas, s.
But there are also expressions and phrases taken from Aristotle, as well as from Attic orators and historians, and poetic phrases and allu- sions to the poets.
Philo's works oSer an anthology of Greek phraseology of the most different periods; and his language, in consequence, lacks simplicity and purity see Treitel, "De Philonis Judeei Ser- mone, " Breslau, 1870 ; Jessen, " De Elocutione Phi- lonis Alexandrini," 1889.
But more important than the influence of the lan- guage was that of the literature.
He quotes the epic and dramatic poets with esjDecial frequency, or alludes to passages in their works.
He holds- that the highest perception of truth is possible only after a study of the encyclopedic sciences.
Hence his system throughout shows the influence of Greek philosophy.
The dualistic contrast between God and the world, between the finite and the infinite, appears also in Neo-Pythagorism.
The influence of Stoicism is unmistakable in the doc- Influence trine of God as the only efficient cause, of in that of divine reason immanent in Hellenism, the world, in that of the powers ema- nating from God and suffusing the world.
In the doctrine of the Logos various ele- ments of Greek philosophy are united.
As Heinze shows " Die Lehre vom Logos in der Griechischen Philosophie, " 1873, pp.
Philo's doctrine of dead, inert, non-existent matter harmonizes in its essentials with the Platonic and Stoic doctrine.
His account of the Creation is almost identical with that of Plato; he follows the latter's "Timseus" pretty closely in his exposition of the world as having no beginning and no end ; and, like Plato, he places the creative activity могу Поло Bad Cat барзо! well as the act of creation out- side of time, on the Platonic ground that time begins only with the world.
The influence of Pythago- rism appears in the numeral-symbolism, to which Philo Judaeus THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 10 Pliilo frequently recurs.
In his psychology he adopts either the Stoic division of the soul into eight faculties, or the Platonic trichotomy of reason, courage, and desire, or the Aristotelian triad of the vegetative, emotive, and rational souls.
посмотреть еще doctriae of the body as the source привожу ссылку all evil corresponds entirely with the Neo-Pythagorean doctrine: the soul he conceives as a divine emanation, similar to Plato's vov; see Siegfried, "Philo," pp.
His ethics and allegories are based on Stoic ethics and allegories.
Although as a philosopher Philo must be classed with the eclectics, he was not therefore merely a com- piler.
He made his philosophy the means of de- fending and justifying the Jewish religious truths.
These truths he regarded as tixed and determinate; and philosophy was merely an aid to truth and a means of arriving at it.
With this end in view Philo chose from the philosophical tenets of the Greeks, refusing those that did not harmonize with the Jewish religion, as, e.
Although he devoted himself largely to the Greek language and literature, especially Greek philoso- phy, Philo's national Jewish education is also a fac- tor to be taken into account.
While he read the Old Testament chiefly in the Greek trans- His Knowl- lation, not deeming it necessary to use edge of the Hebrew text because he was under Hebrew, the wrong impression that the Greek corresponded with it, he nevertheless understood Hebrew, as his numerous etymologies of Hebrew names indicate see Siegfried, " Philonische Studien," in Merx, "Archiv fur Wissensohaftliche Erforschung des A.
These etymologies are not in agreement with modern He- brew philology, but are along the lines of the etymo- logic midrash to Genesis and of the earlier rabbinism.
His knowledge of the Halakah was not profound.
Ritter, however, has shown {I.
In the Haggadah, however, he was very much at home, not only in that of the Bible, but especially in that of the earlier Palestinian and the Hellenistic Midrash Frankel, "Ueber den Einfluss der Palastinensischen Exegese auf die Alexandri- nische Hermeneutik," 1851, pp.
His Methods of Exegesis : Philo bases his doctrines on the Old Testament, which he considers as the source and standard not only of religious truth but in general of all truth.
Its pronouncements are for him divine pronouncements.
Although he distin- guishes between the words uttered by God Himself, as the Decalogue, and the edicts of Moses, as the special laws "De Specialibus Legibus," §§ 3 et seq.
The extent of his canon can not be exactly determined comp.
Ilorue- mann, " Observationes ad lUustrationem Dqctrinse de Canone V.
Pick, "Philo's Canon of the O.
Bissel, "The Canon of the O.
He does not quote Ezekiel, Daniel, Canticles, Buth, Lamen- tations, Ecclesiastes, or Esther on a quotation from Job see E.
Kautzsch, "De Locis V.
Greek allegory had preceded Philo in this field.
As the Stoic allegorists sought in Homer the basis for their philosophic teachings, so the Jewish alle- gorists, and especially Philo, went to the Old Testa- ment.
Following the methods of Stoic allegory, they interpreted the Bible philosoph- Stoic ically on Philo's predecessors in the Influence, domain of the allegoristic Midrash among the Palestinian and Alexan- drian Jews, see Siegfried, I.
Philo bases his hermeneutlcs on the assumption of a twofold meaning in the Bible, the literal and the allegorical comp.
The two inter- pretations, however, are not of equal importance : the literal sense is adapted to human needs ; but the allegorical sense is перейти на страницу real one, which only the ini- tiated comprehend.
As a result of some of these rules of inter- 11 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Philo Judeeus pvetation the literal sense of certain passages of the Bible must be excluded altogether; e.
There are in addition special rules that not only direct the reader to recognize the passages which demand an allegorical ссылка на подробности, but help the initiated to find the correct and intended meaning.
These passages are such as contain : 1 the doubling of a phrase; 2 an apparently superfluous ex- pression in the text ; 3 the repetition of statements previously made; 4 a change of phraseology— all these phenomena point to something special that the reader must consider.
Philo, therefore, changed ac- cents, breathings, etc.
Details regarding the form of words are very important : 13 the number of the word, if it show.
Philo found much material for this S3'm- bolism in the Old Testament, and he developed it more thoroughly according to the methods of the Pythagoreans and Stoics.
Philo regards the singular as God's number and the basis for all numbers " De AUegoriis Legura," ii.
Three is the number of the body "Do AUegoriis Legum," i.
Six, the product of the masculine and feminine numbers 3x2 and in its parts equal to 3 + 3, is the symbol of the movement of organic beings " De AUegoriis Legum, " i.
Miiller, "Philo unci die Welt- schOpfung," 1841, p.
Eight, thenumberof the cube, has many of the attributes determined by the Pythagoreans " Quasstiones in Genesin," iii.
Nine is the number of strife, ac- cording to Gen.
Philo determines also the values of the numbers 50, 70, and 100, 12, and 120.
The 4 and manifold deductions made from the comparison of objects and the relations in which they stand come very near to confusing the whole system, this being prevented.
Philo elaborates an extensive symbol- ism of proper names, following the example of the Bible and the Midrash, to which he adds many new interpretations.
On the difference between the physical and ethical allegory, the first of which refers to natural processes and the second to the psychic life of man, see Siegfried, I.
Philo's teaching was not Jewish, but was derived from Greek philosophy.
Desiring to читать далее it into a Jewish doctrine, he applied the Stoic mode of alle- goric interpretation to the Old Testament.
No one before Philo, except his now forgotten Alexandrian predecessors, had applied this method to the Old Testament — a method that could produce no lasting продолжение здесь />It was attacked even in Alexandria " De Vita Mosis," iii.
His Doctrine of God https://prognozadvisor.ru/100/stol-krugliy-eames-dsw-100-eyms.html Philo obtains his theol- ogy in two ways : by means of negation and by posi- tive assertions as to the nature of God comp.
Zeller, "Philosophic der Griechen," 3d ed.
In his negative statement he tries to define the nature of God in contrast to the world.
Here he can take from the Old Testament only cer- tain views of later Jewish theology regarding God's sublimity transcending the world Isa.
But according to the conception that predominates in the Bible God is incessantly active in the world, is filled with zeal, is moved by repentance, and comes to aid His people ; He is, therefore, entii'ely different from the God described by Philo.
Philo Philo Judaeus THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA IZ does not consider God similar to heaven or the world or man; He exists neither in time nor space; He has no human attributes or emotions.
He can not change arpETTTOf ; He is always the same dMiof.
He is the simply existent 6 av, to 6vand as such has no relations with any other being to yap y bv kcTiV OVXi TUV TTpdg Tt.
It is evident that this is not the God of the Old Testament, but the idea of Plato designated as Bedf, in contrast to matter.
Nothing remained, therefore, but to set aside the descriptions of God in the Old Testament by means of allegory.
Scripture, he says, adapts itself to human conceptions aJ.
The same holds good also as regards His anthropopathic at- tributes.
God as such is untouched by unreason- able emotions, as appears, e.
He is free from sorrow, pain, and all such affections.
But He is frequently represented as endowed with human emotions ; and this serves to explain expres- sions referring to His repentance.
Views on Similarly God can not exist or change Anthropo- in space.
Preudenthal, " Hellenistische Studien," p.
Schurer, "Der Begriff des Himmelreichs," in " Jahrbuch fur Protestantische Theologie," 1876, i.
The Divine Being as such is motionless, as the Bible indicates by the phrase " God stands " Deut.
It was difficult to har- monize the doctrine of God's Туя Эдас-801 масло 15мл with the Bible ; and Philo was aided here by his imperfect knowledge of Greek.
Philo's transcendental conception of the idea of God precluded the Creation as well as any activity of God in the world ; it entirely separated God from man ; and it deprived ethics of all religious basis.
But Philo, who was a pious Jew, could not accept the un-Jewish, pagan conception of the world and the irreligious attitude which would have been the logical result of his own system; and so he accepted the Stoic doctrine of the immanence of God, which led him to statements opposed to those he had previously made.
While he at first had placed God entirely outside of the world, he now читать статью Him as the only actual being therein.
While God as a transcendent being could not operate at all in tlie world, He is now considered нажмите чтобы увидеть больше doing everything and as the only cause of all things "De Allegoriis Legum," iii.
He creates not only once, but forever {ib.
He is identical with the Stoic "efficient cause.
God as creator is called Qedg from TW?!
This designation also characterizes Him in conformity with His goodness, because all good gifts are derived from God, but not evil ones.
Hence God must call upon other powers to aid Him in the creation of man, as He can have nothing to do with matter, which con- stitutes the physical nature of man : with evil He can have no connection ; He can not even pun- ish it.
God stands in a special relation to man.
The human soul is God's most characteristic work.
It is a reflex of God, a part of ценный Шумоглушитель CSV 100 какие divine reason, just as in the system of the Stoics the human soul is an emanation of the World-Soul.
The life of the soul is nourished and supported by God, Philo using for his illustrations the figures of the light and the fountain and the Biblical посмотреть больше referring to these.
Doctrine of the Divine Attributes : Al- though, as shown above, Philo repeatedly endeav- ored to find the Divine Being active and acting in the world, in agreement with Stoicism, yet his Pla- tonic repugnance to matter predominated, and con- sequently whenever he posited that the divine could not have any contact with evil, he defined evil as mattei- with the result that he placed God outside of the world.
Hence he was obliged to separate from the Divine Being the activity displayed in the world and to transfer it to the divine powers, which accordingly were sometimes inherent in God and at other times exterior to God.
This doctrine, as worked out by Philo, was composed of very differ- ent elements, including Greek philosophy.
Biblical conceptions, pagan and late Jewish views.
увидеть больше Greek elements 4 borrowed partly from Platonic philosophy, in so far as the divine powers were con- ceived as types or patterns of actual things "arche- typal ideas "and partly from Stoic philosophy, in so far as those powers were regarded as the efficient causes that not only represent the types of things, but also produce and maintain them.
He further made use of the pagan conception of demons ib.
They are also ex- pressed in the names of God ; but Philo's explanation is confusing.
Philo, however, interpreted "Elohim" LXX.
On the parallel activity of the two powers and the symbols used therefor in Scripture, as well as on their emanation from God and their further development into new pow- ers, their relation to God and the world, their part in the Creation, their tasks toward man, etc.
Philo's expo- sition here is not entirely clear, as he sometimes con- ceives the powers to be independent hypostases and sometimes regards them as immanent attributes of the Divine Being.
The Logos : Philo considers these divine powers in their totality also, treating them as a single independent being, which he designates "Logos.
Philo's conception of the Logos is influenced by both of these schools.
There are, in ad- dition.
Biblical elements : there are Biblical passages in which the word of YHVt'H is regarded as a power acting independently and existing by itself, привожу ссылку Isa.
He calls the Logos the " archangel of many names," "taxiarch" corps-commanderthe "name of God," also the "heavenly Adam" comp.
Prom Alexandrian theology Philo borrowed the idea of wisdom as the mediator ; he thereby somewhat confused his doctrine of the Logos, regarding wis- dom as Dahua Видеокамера HAC-HDW1000RP-0280B AHD/TVI/CVI/CVBS higher principle from which the Logos proceeds, and again coordinating it with the latter.
Philo, in connecting his doctrine of the Logos with Scripture, first of all bases on Gen.
He trans- Relation of lates this passage as follows: "He the Logos made man after the image of God," to God.
This image of God is the type for all other things the "Archetypal Idea " of Platoa seal impressed upon things.
The Logos is a kind of shadow cast by God, having the outlines but not the blinding light of the Divine Being.
The relation of the Logos to the divine powers, especially to the two fundamental powers, must now be examined.
And here is found a twofold series of exegetic expositions.
According to one, the Logos stands higher than the two powers ; ac- cording to the other, it is in a way the product of the two powers; similarly it occasionally appears as the chief and leader of the innumerable powers proceeding from the primal powers, and again as the aggregate or product of them.
In its relation to the world the Logos appears as the universal substance on which all things depend ; and from this point of view the manna as yevLKaTardv rt becomes a syinbel for it.
The Logos, however, is not only the archetype of things, but also the power that produces them, appearing as such especially under the name of the Logos rojueif " the divider".
It separates the individual beings of nature from one another according to their characteristics ; but, on the other hand, it constitutes the bond connecting the individual creatures, uniting their spiritual and physical attributes.
It may be said to have in- vested itself with the whole world as an inde- structible garment.
It appears as the director and shepherd of the things in the world Pneuma- in so far as they are in motion.
Logos has a special relation to man.
It is the type ; man is the copy.
The similarity is found in the mind vovq of man.
For the shaping of his nous, man earthly man has the Logos the "heavenly man" for a pattern.
The Logos as " interpreter " announces God's designs to man, acting in this respect as prophet and priest.
As the latter, he softens punishments by making the merciful power stronger than the punitive.
The Logos has a spe- cial mystic influence upon the human soul, illu- minating it and nourishing it with a higher spiritual food, like the manna, of which the smallest piece has the same vitality as the whole.
Cosmolog'y : Philo's conception of the matter out of which the world was created is entirely un- Biblical and un-Jewish ; he is here wholly at one with Plato and the Stoics.
According to him, God does not create the world-stuff, but finds it ready at hand.
God can not create it, as in its nature it resists all contact with the divine.
Sometimes, fol- lowing the Stoics, he designates God as "the efficient cause," and matter as "the affected cause.
Philo, again like Plato and the Stoics, conceives of matter as having no attributes or form; this, however, does not harmonize with the assumption of four elements.
As a result, he can not posit an actual Creation, but only a formation of the world, as Plato holds.
God appears as demiurge and cosmoplast.
Pliilo takes the details of his story of the Creation entirely from Gen.
A specially impor- tant position is assigned here to the Logos, which executes the several acts of the Creation, as God can not come into contact with matter, actually creating only the soul of the good.
The Doctrine of Man as a.
Nat- ural Being : Philo regards the physical natui-e of man as something defective and as an obstacle to his de- velopment that can never be fully surmounted, but still as something indispensable in view of the nature of his being.
With the body the necessity for food arises, as Philo explains in various alle- gories.
The body, however, is also of advantage to the spirit, since the spirit arrives at its knowledge of the world by means of the five senses.
But higher and more important is the spiritual nature of man.
Sensibility has its seat in the body, and lives in the senses, as Philo elabo- rates in varying allegoric imagery.
Connected with this corporeality of the sensibility are its limitations ; but, like the body itself, it is a necessity of nature, the channel of all sense-perception.
Sensibility, however, is still more in need of being guided by reason.
Reason is that part of the spirit which looks toward heavenly things.
It is the highest, the real divine gift that has been infused into man from without "De Opificio Mundi," i.
The prin- cipal powers of the vovc are judgment, memory, and language.
Man as a Moral Being : More important in Philo's system is the doctrine of the moral development of man.
Of this he distinguishes two conditions: 1 that before time was, and 2 that since the begin- ning of time.
On https://prognozadvisor.ru/100/ta-40-lyo-10-dcu-termofilnaya-zakvaska-na-100-200-l.html upon time the soul loses its purity and is confined in a body.
The nous becomes earthly, but it retains a tendency toward something higher.
Philo is not entirely certain whether the body in itself or merely in its preponderance over the spirit is evil.
But the body in any case is a source of danger, as it easily drags the spirit into the bonds of sensibility.
Here, also, Philo is undecided whether sensibility is in itself evil, or whether it may merely lead into temptation, and must itself be regarded as a mean litaov.
Sensibility in any case is the source of the passions and desires.
Tlie passions attack the sensi- bility in order to destroy the whole soul.
On their number and their symbols in Scripture see Siegfried, I.
The " desire " is either the lustful enjoyment of.
It connects the nous and the sensibility, this being a psychologic necessity, but an evil посетить страницу источник an ethical point of view.
According to Philo, man passes through several steps in his ethical development.
At first the sev- eral elements of the Imman being are in a state of latency, presenting a kind of moral neutrality which Philo designates by the terms " naked " or " medial.
In this period of 4 indecision God endeavors to prepare the earthly nous for virtue, presenting to him in the "earthly wisdom and virtue" an image of heavenly wisdom.
But man nous quickly leaves this state of neutrality.
Here the moral duties of man arise ; and according to his at- titude there are two opposite tendencies in hu- manity.
Sensual life : The soul is first aroused by the stimuli of sensual pleasures ; https://prognozadvisor.ru/100/ballu-biemmedue-riello-lpg-074b105-08.html begins to turn toward them, and then becomes more and more in- volved.
It is infiamed and excited by irrational impulses.
Its condition is restless and painful.
The sensibility endures, ac- cording to Gen.
A continual inner void produces a lasting desire which is never satisfied.
All the higher aspirations after God and virtue are stifled.
The end is complete moral turpitude, the annihilation of all sense of duty, the corruption of the entire soul: not a particle of the soul that might heal the rest remains whole.
The worst consequence of this moral death is, according to Philo, absolute ignorance and the loss of the power of judgment.
Sensual things are placed above spiritual; and wealth is regarded as the high- est good.
Too great a value especially is placed upon the human nous; and things are wrongly judged.
Man in his folly even opposes God, and thinks to scale heaven and subjugate the entire earth.
In the field of politics, for example, he at- tempts to rise from the position of leader of the people to that of ruler Philo cites Joseph as a type of this kind.
Sensual man generally employs his intellectual powers for sophistry, perverting words and destroying truth.
On Philo's predecessors on this point see Siegfried, I.
The method through teaching begins with a pre- liminary presentiment and hope of higher knowl- edge, which is especially exempliiied iu Enos.
The real " teaching " is represented in the адрес of Abra- ham, the " lover of learning.
The first is that of "physiology," during which physical nature is studied.
Abraham was in this stage until he went to Haran ; at this time he was the " physiologer " of na- ture, the " meteorologer.
The pupil must study gram- mar, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, music, and logic ; but he can never attain to more than a partial mastery of these sciences, and this only with the utmost labor.
He sees only the reflection of real science.
The knowledge of the medial arts liiaai rexvaC often proves erroneous.
Hence the " lover of learning " will endeavor to be- come a "wise man.
The tendency toward the sen- suous is given up, and смотрите подробнее insufiiciency of mere knowledge is recognized.
By the method of practise man strives to attain to the highest good by means of moral action.
The preliminary here is change of mind jierdvoiathe turning away from the sensual life.
This turning away is symbolized in Enoch, who, according to Gen" V.
He can also meet the passions as an ascetic combatant.
Moral endeavor Is added to the struggle.
Many dangers arise here.
The body Egyptsensuality Laian and othersand lust the snake tempt the ascetic warrior.
The sophists Cain, etc.
Discouraged by his labors, the ascetic flags in his endeavors ; but God comes to his aid, as exemplified in Eliezer, and fills him with love of labor instead of hatred thereof.
Thus the warrior attains to victory.
He slays lust as Phinehas slays the snake; and in this way Jacob "he who trips up"the wrestling ascetic, is transformed into Israel, who beholds God.
Good moral endowment, however, takes prece- dence of teaching and practise.
Virtue here is not the result of hard labor, but is the excellent fruit maturing of itself.
Noah represents the prelimi- nary stage.
He is praisedwhile no really good deeds are reported of him, whence it may be concluded that the Bible refers to his good disposition.
But as Noah is praised only in comparison with his contemporaries, it follows that he is not yet a per- fect man.
There are several types in the Bible rep- resenting the perfect stage.
It appears in its purest form in Isaac.
With such per- sons, источник статьи, the soul is in a state of Views on rest and joy.
Philo's doctrine of vir- Virtue.
Philo identifies virtue in itself and in general with divine wisdom.
Hence he uses the symbols interchange- ably for both; нажмите чтобы перейти as he also frequently identifies the Logos with divine wisdom, the allegoric desig- nations here too are easily interchanged.
The Gar- den of Eden is " the wisdom of God " and also " the Logos of God " and " virtue.
An essential difference between Philo and the Stoics is found in the fact that Philo seeks in religion the basis for all ethics.
Religion helps man to attain to virtue, which he can not reach of himself, as the Stoics hold.
God must implant virtue in man "De Alle- goriis Legum," i.
Plence the goal of the ethical endeavor is a religious one: the ecstatic con- templation of God and the disembodiment of souls after death.
Hellenistic Judaism culminated in Philo, and through him exerted a deep and lasting influence on Christianity also.
For the Jews themselves it soon succumbed to Palestinian Judaism.
The develop- ment that ended in the Talmud offered a surer guar- anty for the continuance of Judaism, as opposed to paganism and rising Christianity, than Jewish Hel- lenism could promise, which, with all its loyalty to the laws of the Fathers, could not help it to an inde- pendent position.
The cosmopolitanism of Chris- tianity soon swept away Hellenistic Judaism, which could never go so far as to declare the Law super- fluous, notwithstanding its philosophic liberality.
For the extent and magnitude of Philo's influence on Judaism and Christianity see Siegfried, I.
Bibliography : Schurer, Gesch.
On the Greek MSS.
On the indi- rect sources that may he used lor reconstructing the text : Schilrer, I.
On translations of Phi- lo's works : Schiirer, I.
Other German translations : M.
Friedlander, Ueher die PManthropie clea Mosaisehen Oesetzes, Vienna, 1880.
His Relation to tlie Halakah.
While his method of interpretation was influenced by the Palestinian Midrash, he in his turn influenced Thilo Judeeus THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 16 this Midrash ; for many of his ideas were adopted by Palestinian scholars, and are still found scattered throughout the Talmud and the Midrashim.
The Palestinian Halakah was probably known in Alexan- dria even before the time of Philo, and was appar- ently introduced by Judah b.
Tabbai, or Joshua b.
Perahj'ah, who fled from the persecutions of Hyr- canus to Alexandria, where he remained for some time.
Philo had, moreover, the opportunity of studying Palestinian exegesis in its home ; for he visited Jerusalem once or twice, and at these times could communicate his views and his method of exegesis to the Palestinian scholars.
Furthermore, later teachers of the Law occasionally visited Alex- andria, among them Joshua b.
Niddah 69b ; and these carried various Philonic ideas back to Palestine.
The same expositions of the Law and the same Biblical exegesis are very frequently found, therefore, in Philo and in the Talmud and Midrashim.
In the solution of such a problem a distinction must first be drawn between the Halakah and the Haggadah.
With regard to the Halakah, which originated in Palestine, it may be assumed with certainty that the interpretations and expositions found in Philo which coincide with those of the Halakah His Debt have been borrowed by him from the to the latter ; and his relation to it is, there- Halakah.
Any influence which he may have exercised upon it can have been only a negative one, inasmuch.
The following examples may :serve to elucidate his relation to the Halakah : Philo says " De Specialibus Legibus," ed.
Leipsic, § 13, ed.
The same view is found in the Halakah : " One might think that if the deed occurred in the city, the girl was guilty under all circum- stances, and that if it took place in the field, she was invariably innocent.
Another man who has committed a venial offense, for which he deserves exile, also has escaped human justice.
This latter man God uses as a tool, to act as the executioner ссылка на страницу the murderer, whom He causes him to 4 and to slay unintentionally.
The murderer has now been punished by death, while his execu- tioner is exiled for manslaughter; the latter thus sufllering the punishment which he has merited be- cause of his original minor offense.
In explaining the law given in Deut.
The same interpretation is found 4 the Halakah Sifre, Deut.
Thus, in interpreting the law set forth in Ex.
Philo agrees with the Halakah also in his justifi- cation of various laws.
The law given in Ex.
It is especially interesting to note that Philo bor- rowed certain halakot that have no foundation in Scripture, regarding them as authoritative iaterpre- tations of the law in question.
He says, for instance {I.
Zarah 36b that, according to the Pentateuchal law Deut.
The most important feature of Philo's relation to the Halakah is his frequent agreement with an earlier halakah where It differs from a later one.
This fact has thus far remained unnoticed, although it is most important, since it thus frequently be- comes possible to determine which portions of the accepted halakah are earlier and which are later in date.
A few examples may serve to make this clear.
This interpreta- tion of verse 13 of the.
Akiba, explains the words "we-'asetah et-ziparneha " as meaning " slie shall let her nails grow.
In like manner he interprets I.
Philo here follows the earlier halakah, whose representative, R.
Eliezer's statement, it is not expressly said that such state- ment must not be applied to the other two phrases ; and it may be inferred from Philo that these three phrases, which were explained figuratively by R.
Ishmael, were taken literally by the old halakah.
The same agreement between Philo and the earlier halakah is found in the following examples: Philo takes the phrases Ex.
Supports This explanation differs from that of the "Lex the accepted halakah, which interprets Talionis.
This view of the earlier halakah was still known as such to the later teachers; otherwise the Talmud B.
It frequently happens that when Philo differs from the Halakah in expounding адрес law, and читать статью an interpretation at variance with it, such divergent explanation is mentioned as a possible one and is dis- proved in the Talmud or the halakic midrashim.
This fact is especially noteworthy, since in many cases it renders possible the reconstruction of the earlier hala- kah by a comparison with Philo's interpretations, as is shown by the following example : Philo says X.
Philo interprets the words "his owner also shall be put to death " ib.
The ac- cepted Halakah, however, explains the phrase in question to mean that the owner will suffer death at the hand of God, while human justice can punish him only by a fine, in no case having the right to put him to death because his ox has killed a man Mek.
This interpretation of the Halakah was not, on the other hand, universally accepted; for in Mek.
This view was vigorously opposed by the later halakah, and was not entirely set aside until a very late date, as appears from Sanh.
It is impossible, however, to ascribe to the earlier Halakah all the interpretations of Philo that are mentioned and refuted in the Talmud and the hala- kic midrashim; and extreme caution must be ob- served in determining which of Philo's interpreta- tions that differ from the accepted Halakah are to be assigned to the earlier one.
Many of Philo's ex- planations are quoted according to the Influence rulings of the court of Alexandria and of the to its interpretation of the Law, and Court of Al- were never recognized in the Pales- ezandria.
They are, neverthe- less, cited as possible interpretations, and are refuted in the Talmud and in the Midrashim, Alexandrian judicial procedure in general being frequently made an object of criticism.
Philo's relation to the Palestinian haggadic exe- gesis is different, for it can not be said that wherever Palestinian ideas coincide with his own it must in- variably have formed взято отсюда basis of his statements comp.
Ereudenthal, " Hellenistische Studien," pp.
While this dependence may have existed in numerous instances, it may confidently be affirmed that in перейти на страницу other cases the Palestinian sources bor- rowed ideas which Philo had drawn from Hellenistic authorities.
The following examples may serve to show that the Palestinian Haggadah is indebted to Philo : Gen.
In like manner the idea expressed in Gen.
This may have been the case also with the rules of hermeneutlcs.
The principles which Philo framed for the allegoric interpretation of Scripture corre- spond in part to the exegetic system of the Pales- tinian Halakah.
It is highly probable, however, that neither borrowed these rules from the other, but that both, feeling the need of interpreting Перейти на страницу ture, though for dilfercnt purposes; independently invented and formulated these methods while fol- lowing the same trend of thought.
Some examples of similarity in the rules по ссылке be given here.
Philo states as another rule that there is no superflu- ous word in the Bible, and wherever there is a word which seems to be such, it must be interpreted.
This principle is formulated by Akiba al8o Yer.
Frankel, Ueber den Einflum der PalOsti- nenaisehen Exenese auf die Alexandrinische Hermeneutik, pp.
Weinstein, Zur Genesisder Agada: partil.
His mother is said to have been one of Putiel's daughters; and it seems that he was the only child of his parents Ex.
Phinehas came into prominence through his execu- tion of Zimri, son of Salu, and Cozbi, daughter of Zur, a Midianite prince, at Shittim, where the Israel- ites worshiped Baal-peor.
Through his zeal he also stayed the plague which had broken out among the Israelites as a punishment for their sin ; and for this act he was approved by God and was rewarded with the divine promise that the priesthood should remain in his family forever Num.
At the time of the distribution of the land, Phine- has received a hill in Mount Ephraim, where his father, Eleazar, was buried ib.
He is further mentioned as delivering the oracle to the Israelites in their war with the Benjamites Judges XX.
The act of Phinehas in executing judgment and his reward are sung by the Psalmist Ps.
Phinehas is extolled in the Apocrypha also: " 4 Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, is the third in glory " Ecclus.
In Rabbinical Literature : Phinehas is highly extolled by the Rabbis for his promptness and energy in executing the prince of the tribe of Simeon and the Midianitish woman.
While even Moses himself knew not what to do, and all the Israelites were weeping at the door of the Taber- nacle Num.
He first appealed to the brave men of Israel, asking who would смотрю Почтовая марка 100 лет г.

Мурманску прощения willing to kill the criminals at the risk of his own life ; and, receiving no answer, he then undertook to accomplish the ex- ecution himself Sifre, Num.
Indeed, the people in- quired his object in entering the tent, whereupon he answered that he was about to follow the ex- ample of Zimri, and was admitted unopposed.
After having stabbed the man and the woman, Phinehas carried both of them on his spear out of the tent so that all the Israelites might see that they had been justly punished.
Twelve miracles were wrought for Phinehas at this time, among others the following: he was aided by divine providence in carrying the two bodies on his spear comp.
Still, when he came out the people of the 19 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Fhinehas tribe of Simeon gathered around biin with the in- tention of killing him, upon which the angel of death began to mow down the Israelites with greater fury than before.
Phiuehas dashed the two corpses to the ground, saying : " Lord of the world, is it worth while that so many Israelites perish through these two?
An allusion to this incident is made by the Psalm- ist: "Then stood up Phinehas, and executed judg- ment " Ps.
Although the priesthood had been previously given to Aaron and his offspring, Phinehas became a priest only after he had executed Zimri, or, ac- cording to R.
Ashi, after he had reconciled the tribes in the affair of the altar Zeb.
Phine- has, Biblical Data.
The priestly portions of every slaughtered animal — the shoulder, the two cheeks, and the maw Deut.
Owing to the sad consequences attending the Israelites' lapse into idolatry, Phinehas pro- nounced an anathema, under the authority of the Unutterable Name and of the writing of the tables, and in the name of the celestial and terrestrial courts of justice, against any Israelite who should drink the wine of a heathen Pirke R.
Phinehas accompanied, in the capacity of a priest specially anointed " meshuah milhamah " for such purposes comp.
The question why Phinehas was sent instead of his father is answered by the Rabbis in two different ways: 1 Phinehas went to avenge his maternal grandfather, Joseph with whom certain rabbis identify Putielupon the Mid- ianites who had sold him into Egypt comp.
Phinehas was one of the two spies sent by Joshua to explore Jericho, as mentioned in Josh.
On the identification of Phinehas with Elijah see Elijah ix Rabbinical Literature.
The Rabbis, however, hold that the hill where Eleazar was buried see Phinehas, Biblical Data was not ap- portioned to Phinehas as a special lot, but was in- herited by him from his wife, and was therefore called by his name B.
Apart from his identification with Elijah, Phinehas is considered by the Rabbis to have attained a very great age, since according to them he was still living in the time of Jephthah, 340 years after the Exodus comp.
In the matter of Jephthah's vow, Phinehas is represented in a rather unfavorable light see Jephthah in Rabbinical Literature.
For him who sees Phinehas in a dream a miracle will be wrought Ber.
Son of Eli, the high priest and judge of Israel ; younger brother of Hophni.
According to I Sam.
As judges they sinned through licentious conduct with the women who went to Shiloh I Sam.
In punishment for these sins it was announced to Eli that his sons should perish on the same day {ib.
A posthumous son was born to the wife of Phine- has, whom she called Ichabod I Sam.
Father of Eleazar, a priest who returned from captivity with Ezra Ezra viii.
PHINEHAS : Guardian of the treasury at Jeru- « salem.
In the last days of Jerusalem, in the year 70 C.
Thebouthi, and нажмите чтобы прочитать больше his trust; collecting many of the linen coats of the priests, their girdles, much purple and silk which had been pre- pared for the sacred curtain, and the costly spices for the holy incense, to save his life he went over to the Romans Josephus, "B.
He appears to be identical with the Phinehas mentioned in the Mishnah Shekalim v.
Fhinehas ben Clusoth Phylacteries THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 20 PHINEHAS BEN CLUSOTH : Leader of the Idumeans.
Giora undertook several ex- peditions into the territory of the Idumeans to req- uisition provisions for his people.
The Idumeans, after their complaints in Jerusalem had not brought assistance, formed a band of volunteers numbering 20,000 men, who from that time acted as wildly and mercilessly as did the Sicarians.
Their lead- ers were Johannes and Jacob b.
Kathla, and Phinehas ben Clusoth Josephus, " B.
HAMA generally called B.
Phinehas, and occasionally Phinehas ha-Ko- hen : Palestinian amora of the fourth century ; born probably in the town of Siknin, where he was living when his brother Samuel died Midr.
He was a pupil of R.
Jeremiah, of whose ritual practises he gives various details {e.
He seems also to have lived for a time in Babylonia, since a R.
Phinehas wlio once went from that country to Palestine is mentioned in Yer.
This passage apparently refers to Phinehas b.
Hama, as a conversation between him and Judah b.
Shalom is also related elsewhere {e.
Phinehas transmitted a lialakah by Hisda Yer.
His haggadic aphorisms, mentioned in B.
Wlieu the purity of the descent of the Jewish families in Babylonia was doubted in Palestine, Phinehas publicly proclaimed in the посетить страницу that in this respect Palestine outranked all countries ex- cepting Babylonia Kid.
Many halakic sen- tences by Phinehas have been preserved, most of which occur in citations by Hananiah {e.
Demai 23b ; Yer.
Phinehas himself occasionally transmitted earlier halakic maxims {e.
Phinehas' own haggadah is very extensive, and includes many maxims and aphorisms, as well as homiletic and exegetic interpretations.
The follow- ing citations may serve as examples of his style: " Poverty in the house of man is more bitter than fifty plagues" B.
Bibliography : Bacher, Ag.
PHINEHAS BEN JAIR : Tannaof the fourth generation; lived, probably at Lydda, in the second half of the second century; son-in-law of Simeon ben Yohai and a fellow disciple of Judah I.
He was more celebrated for piety than for learning, al- though his discussions with his father-in-law Shab.
A haggadah gives the follow- ing illustration of Phinehas' scrupulous honesty: Once two men deposited with him two seahs of wheat.
After a prolonged absence of the depositors Phinehas sowed the wheat and preserved the har- vest.
This he did for seven consecutive years, and when at last the men came to claim their deposit he returned them all the accumulated grain Deut.
Phinehas is said never to have accepted an invita- tion to a meal and, after he had attained his major- ity, to have refused to eat at the table of his father.
The reason given by him for this course of conduct was that there are two kinds of people : 1 those who are willing to be hospitable, but can not af- ford to be so, and 2 those who have the means but are not willing to extend hospitality to others Hul.
Special weight was laid by Phinehas upon the prescriptions relating to the tithe.
This feature of Phinehas' piety is described hyperbolically in the Haggadah.
The latter relates a story of a mule be- longing to Phinehas which, having been stolen, was released after a couple of days on account of its re- fusal to eat food from which the 'tithe had not been taken Gen.
To Phinehas is attributed the abandonment by Judah I.
Phinehas draws a gloomy picture of his time.
We have no hope but in God" Sotah49a.
Elsewhere he says: "Why is it that in our time the prayers of the Jews are not heard?
Because they do not know the holy name of God" Pesik.
Phinehas, however, believes in man's perfectibihty, and enumerates the virtues which render man worthy to receive the Holy Spirit.
The Law, he says, leads to carefulness; carefulness, to diligence; diligence, to cleanliness; cleanliness, to retirement; retirement, to purity; purity, to piety; piety, to 21 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Phinehas ben Clusoth Phylacteries humility; humility, to fear of sin; fear of sin, to holiness; holiness, to the reception of the Holy Spirit; and the Holy Spirit, to resurrection 'Ab.
Zarah 30b ; with some slight variants, Sotah ix.
The Haggadah records many miracles performed by Phinehas.
Accord- Attributed ing to another version, Phinehas to Him.
To Phinehas is attributed the authorship of a later midrash entitled " Tadshe " or " Baraita de-Rabbi Pinehas ben Ya'ir.
Phinehas was buried in Ke- far Birani.
Bibliography : Heilprin, Seder lia-Dnrot, il.
SAMTTEIj: The last high priest; according to the reckoning of Josephus, the eighty-third since Aaron.
He was a wholly un- worthy person who was not of high-priestly lineage and who did not even know what the high priest's office was, but was chosen by lot, and in 67-68 was dragged by the revolutionary party against his will from his village Aphthia, where he was a farmer, to Jerusalem, to take the place of the deposed Matthias ben Theophilus.
He was clothed in the high-priestly garments and instructed as to what he had to do on every occasion.
He was an object of ridicule for the evil-minded, but this godlessness drew tears from the eyes of the worthy priests.
He met his death probably in the general catastrophe.
His name is written in various ways by Josephus "B.
It is supposed that he was iden- tical with the DnJS mentioned in the Mishnah as a functionary of the Temple ; in this case his correct name would be Phineas.
But Josephus writes this Biblical name differently.
In regard to the Phinehas mentioned by the Rabbis see Phinehas, guardian of the treasury.
BiELiOKRAPHY : Derenbourg, Essai sur VHistoire de la Pales- tine, p.
PHBYGIA: Province in Asia Minor.
Anti- ochus the Great transferred 2,000 Jewish families from Mesopotamia and Babylonia to Phrygia and Lydia Josephus, "Ant.
The Christian Apostles also were familiar with Jews from Phrygia Acts ii.
Christian teachings easily gained en- try there on account of the numerous Jews in the country.
It is noteworthy that in the Phrygian city Mantalos there is an inscription written from right to left Ramsay, " The Https://prognozadvisor.ru/100/silikonovie-primanki-maria-aji-flutter-23-pkrc.html Geography of Asia Minor," p.
In the Byzantine period Amorion was a Phrygian city, in which Jews held the supremacy see Jew.
Bibliography : Schurer, Gesch.
Bam- say, The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, I.
While these passages were interpreted literally by most commentators comp.
In the British Museum.
There are more laws — ascribed to oral delivery by God to Moses— clus- tering about the institution of tefiUin than about any Phylacteries THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 22 other institution of Judaism Men.
Presburg, 1883, mentions eigliteeu; comp.
Phylacteries, as universally used at the present xmaVD ; Men.
Wisti- netski, § 1669.
The strap that is passed through the head-phylactery ends at the back of the head https://prognozadvisor.ru/100/zhestkiy-disk-hgst-hdn726050ale610.html a knot representing the letter 1; the one that is passed перейти the hand-phylactery is formed into a noose near the box and fastened in a knot in the shape of the letter i comp.
Heilprin, " Seder ha- Dorot," i.
Maskileison, Warsaw, 1897, where a wonderful story in relation to the laws governing Phylacteries and Bag.
In the United States National Museum, Waaliington, D.
The boxes must be square ' Men.
The measurements of the boxes are not given ; but it is recommended that they should not be smaller than the width of two fingers 'Er.
The width of the straps should be equal to the 23 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Pkylacteries length of a grain of oats.
The strap that is passed through the head-pliylactery should be long enough to encircle the head and to allow for the knot ; and the two ends, falling in front over either shoulder, should reach the navel, or somewhat above it.
The strap that is passed through the hand-phylactery should be long enough to allow for the knot, to en- circle the whole length of the arm, and then to be wound three times around the middle finger " Yad, " I.
Each box contains the four Scriptural passages Ex.
Amsterdam, 1789, to Bo, p.
The hand- phylactery has only one compartment, which con- tains the four Biblical selections written upon a single strip of parchment in four parallel columns and in the order given in the Bible Men.
The head-phylactery has four compartments, formed from one piece of leather, in each of which one selec- tion written on a separate piece of parchment is de- posited perpendicularly.
The pieces of parchment on which the Biblical selections are written are in either case tied round with narrow strips of parch- ment and fastened with the thorouglily washed hair of a clean animal Shab.
There was considerable discussion among the com- mentators of the Talmud Men.
The chief disputants in this case were E.
Solomon Yizhaki Arrange- Eashi and R.
Me'ir Tam ment of Rabbenu Tamalthough different Passages, possible arrangements have been sug- gested by other writers " Shimmusha Rabba" and RABaD.
The following diagram shows the arrangements of the Bible verses as ad- vocated respectively by Rabbenu Tam and Rashi {comp.
Rodkinssohn, "Tefillah le-Mosheh," p.
RABaD and "Kesef Mishneh " ad loc.
If, however, one is uncertain as to the exact position for two pairs of tefiUin at the same time, one should first "lay " the tefiUin prepared in accordance with Rashi's opinion, and then, removing these during the latter part of the service, without pronouncing a blessing lay those prepared in accordance with Rabbenu Tarn's opinion.
Only the specially pious wear both нажмите чтобы прочитать больше Orah Hayyim, 34, 2, 3.
The parchment on which the Biblical passages are written need not be ruled "Yad," I.
A pointed instru- ment that leaves no blot should be used in ruling ; the use of a pencil is forbidden Orah Hayyim, 32, 6, Isserles' gloss.

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