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Надувная лодка ENERGY plus E290


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Надувная лодка ENERGY plus E290

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Re-188 decay is accompanied by a 155 keV predominant energy -emission, which could be detected by -cameras, for imaging, biodistribution, absorbed radiation dose studies.

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Its attractive properties and its potential low cost associated with a long-lived parent make it an interesting option for clinical use.
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LNE { LNHB/CEA Table de Radionucl eides 106 45 Rh 61 106 45 Rh 61 1 Decay Scheme Rh-106 disintegrates by beta minus emission to the ground state and excited levels of Pd-106.

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Надувная лодка ENERGY plus E290


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Надувная лодка ENERGY plus E290

ENERGY Euro Hot 30. This is an open access article distributed under thewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Re-188 decay is accompanied by a 155 keV predominant energy -emission, which could be detected by -cameras, for imaging, biodistribution, or absorbed radiation dose studies.
Its attractive physical properties and its potential low cost associated with a long-lived parent make it an interesting option for clinical use.
The clinical efficacy, for therapeutic applications, of a variety of Re-188-labeled agents is demonstrated.
The high energy of the -emission of Re-188 is particularly well suited for effective penetration in solid tumours.
Its total radiation dose delivered to tissues is comparable to other radionuclides used in therapy.
Furthermore, radiation safety and shielding requirements are an important subject of matter.
In the case of bone metastases treatment, therapeutic ratios посетить страницу presented in order to describe the efficacy of Re-188 usage.
Parent radionuclide, tungsten-188 W-188 with a half life equal to 69.
Iridium-192 and osmium-191 are formed during reactor irradiation of tungsten-186 and are thus always present in reactor-produced tungsten-188.
These impurities can be removed while obtaining Re-188, during the generator elution process and subsequent postelution passage through alumina.
Because the production of tungsten-188 from enriched tungsten-186 is a double neutron capture process, the production yield is a function of the square of the neutron flux.
The processing of tungsten-188 is generally conducted in a quartz glass vessel.
Processing of the granular tungsten metal and tungsten oxide targets involves in sodium hydroxide solution containing hydrogen peroxide solution to form sodium tungstate.
The solution is then filtered and a germanium detector is used in order to determine tungsten-188,and Ir-192 levels and any other impurity which may be present.
Processed tungsten-188 is generally stored as sodium tungstate in sodium hydroxide solution, which is acidified just prior to loading.
Re-188 Production Rhenium-188 is produced according to the decay scheme in Figure and its main physical properties are shown in Table.
Concentration of the Re-188 elutant is of great importance and quality control of preparation of Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals is significant for proper biodistribution and therapeatic results.
Two 55 GBq generators can provide sufficient activity for therapeutic administrations of Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals during a period of one year.
The transarterial administration of Re-188-labeled agents for treatment of inoperable liver cancer requires use of high-level generators.
The handling of such high levels of Re-188 imposes radiological precautions and adequate care that covers the ALARA principles as low as reasonably achievable.
Figure 1: Decay scheme for Re-188 production.
The use of this generator system in various institutions has high yields of Re-188 accompanied with low W-188 parent breakthrough during periods of several months.
Generators are provided with short lengths of arterial extension tubing that are coiled into recessed holes at the top inlet and bottom outlet of the lead shielding unit.
The typical generator system configuration is shown in Figure.
In order to minimize the radiation exposure caused by the bremsstrahlung from interaction of beta particles with the lead, a polyacrylate shield between the generator and solutions of Re-188 and the lead is used.
An in-line acidic alumina trapping column effectively removes the low levels of any W-188 parent breakthrough and any alumina or other particles which may be eluted from the generator.
The Re-188 yields after elution are generally 75% to 80% of the available Re-188.
The generator reaches the 62% of the equilibrium after 24 hours; therefore, the daily elution will provide approximately 50% of the Re-188 that would be available at equilibrium, adjusting the availability of Re-188 for the preparation of therapeutic agents in a daily basis.
The breakthrough values of W-188 are usually very small in the range.
In other case, any break through can be effectively removed by subsequent postelution passage of the bolus through the alumina column.
The high Re-188 yields and low W-188 breakthrough can be maintained during at least 60 days with the alumina-based generator.
The high activity levels 1-2 Ci of Re-188 solution require special treatment of the radiological protection issues.
In addition to the bremsstrahlung radiation mentioned above, there are high energy gamma rays emitted by Re-188 and thus extra shielding for gamma camera imaging is required.
For this purpose, medium or high energy collimation should be used instead of the conventional type of collimation for the 155 keV photons.
Nevertheless, careful monitoring of radiation levels and especially use of ring monitors for extremities exposure measurements are required.
Furthermore, personnel exposures may be reduced by automation or semiautomation of generator operation.
Rhenium radiopharmaceuticals are prepared from the permetallate ions obtained from generators.
The metal ions must be reduced by an appropriate reducing agent and coordinated by ligand systems, which stabilize the lower oxidation states of the metals and significantly determine the biological distribution patterns of the pharmaceuticals.
In this stage, the use of free radical scavengers e.
In this way, a much longer shelf life is achievable.
High activity-concentration Re 188 is necessary for the preparation of some Re 188-labeled />Several methods based on generator postelution concentration of Re-188 elutant have been developed aiming to increase the activity concentration.
The alumina trapping column is a safety measure that is highly recommended for use with such type of generators.
However, the elution volumes are жмите сюда larger than those for high-capacity generators.
This could result in an increased backpressure during positive elution.
After anion column trapping and subsequent elution with saline, very high purity solutions of Re-188 are obtained.
Costs of transport of the generator and of consumable supplies are modest even if column concentration of eluates is necessary for Re-188 radiopharmaceutical preparation.
Clinical Applications Rhenium-188 is widely used in clinical applications because of important advantages over other radioisotopes.
It has a physical half life which is appropriate for therapeutic purposes, reducing the toxicity risks, compared to other radioisotopes d for Sm-153, d for Sr-89.
It is chemically similar to technetium and many biological results already obtained for the latter could be exploited.
However, the reduction potential for Re is substantially larger and therefore a much greater quantity of reducing agent is required.
Given that its chemical reactions are mostly redox, Re-188 resolves as anionresulting in rapid secretion from vital organs.
The penetration depth is larger in relation to Посмотреть еще and Sm-153.
The energy of -radiation emitted is detectable by -cameras, for imaging, biodistribution, or absorbed radiation dose studies whereas no extra shielding is required because it does not differ substantially from the energy emitted by 99mTc decay.
Chemical Forms of Re-188 Because of its physical properties, Re-188 is suitable for labeling peptides, antibodies, and colloids to form radiopharmaceuticals.
In most studies, a dose 30 mCi—90 mCi of Re-188 HEDP is injected intravenously and whole-body dynamic scans are obtained 1 to 6 days later.
The injected activity is cleared fast in the blood with an effective half life of h.
The predominant elimination of the activity is observed through urinary excretion with a mean renal clearance of of the injected activity within the 76 h посмотреть больше administration.
Rombica Smart Box 4K calculated whole-body effective half life is h.
Other Re-188 labeled radiopharmaceuticals were developed for liver cancer treatment.
The dose range in liver has been found to lie in the range 4.
The use of Re-188 HDD suggests a high dose tolerance in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis.
However, the labeled yield is rather small 50%—70% and thus the possibility to achieve high therapeutic activity is limited.
These include Re-188 N-DEDC, Re-188-SSS Lipiodol, and Re-188 human serum albumin or HSA B20 microspheres range m.
The labeling yields are 95% for Re-188 N-DEDC, 97% for Re-188-SSS Lipiodol and 80% for human serum albumins HSA microspheres as a microembolising vehicle for Re-188.
The advantages of Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals over those of I-131 were also highlighted.
The lower energy emitted, half life, the on-site availability, and nontoxicity prevent radiation protection issues.
Comparing Re-188 to Y-90 microspheres, the treatment with Re-188 Lipiodol is a more simple process and can be performed to all referred patients with hepatocellular carcinoma HCC.
The drop-out is reduced, and no distortion or destruction of the arterial supply is observed; therefore, multiple treatment sessions could easily be performed.
According to Garcia et al.
After 24 h, the liver, spleen, and kidneys activity decreased to,and of injected activity, respectively.
Skeletal metastases are the most common form of metastatic cancer, appearing in the vast majority of patients with breast and prostate cancer and frequently in patients with lung cancer, renal cancer, thyroid cancer, and multiple myeloma.
These metastases are a major cause of serious morbidity resulting in severe bone pain, hypocalcaemia, and loss of function following pathological fractures and neurological symptoms from nerve compression.
Radionuclide therapy of bone metastases was first used decades ago by administration of P-32.
For therapy purposes, radioisotopes similar either to calcium or to phosphonate carrier molecules are used.
The former category includes Sr-89 chloride or Y-90.
These are accumulated as cations in the bone and in relation to the osseous metabolism.
In the latter category, Sm-153 EDTMP and Re-186 are known to have an excellent radio affinity.
Re-188 HEDP palliative treatment is Пневмостеплер DA-1550 for patients with persisting bone pains after chemotherapy or external beam therapy and having life expectancy at least 6 months corresponding to Karnofsky index over 30%.
Pregnant patients under 18 years old subjected to chemotherapy or having renal failures should be excluded.
Dosimetry of Re-188 HEDP in Skeletal Metastases The assessment of the absorbed dose to organs tissues is a critical step in patient treatment planning within radioimmunotherapy.
Two generalized approaches have been applied to patient organ dosimetry in therapeutic nuclear medicine.
The more straightforward approach читать далее to estimate the absorbed dose to organs of interest using anatomic phantoms representative of each patient or, at least, an average patient.
The main advantage of this method is its ease of use, but only the average absorbed dose can be estimated.
Neither heterogeneities in either tissue composition or radioactivity distribution nor the anatomic geometry of the source and target продолжение здесь within the body of the patient is considered.
As an alternative approach, voxelized geometries may be used to represent the organs and tumors as tagged voxels of different activity levels, and Monte Carlo MC radiation transport can be used to assess dose at the voxel level.
The average absorbed dose may be obtained by tracking energy deposition events within the target organ and assembling a dose-volume histogram DVH through computation of the absorbed dose at each voxel within the organ.
The advantage of this technique is that it can handle tissue heterogeneities bone, soft tissue, air, lung, etc.
However, this approach is time consuming and computationally demanding.
For a given organ of interest, tissue heterogeneities are not generally present.
The efficacy of Re-188 HEDP therapy in bone pain palliation was evaluated by Liepe et al.
The patients were treated with doses of 2.
Dosimetric calculations were based on MIRD schema and SPECT data.
The volume of bone metastases was calculated by posttherapeutic SPECT data after number-of-voxels determination.
Determination of radiation-absorbed doses requires to take into consideration the complexity of osseous tissue consisting of cortical and trabecular structures as well as bone marrow.
The cumulated activity is the time integral of activity in a specific ROI, The distribution of the radionuclide in the metastases was assumed to be homogeneous.
The volume and residence time data were entered into the nodule module option of the MIRDOSE 3.
The mean specific radiation-absorbed dose Главный тормозной цилиндр PMK598 bone metastases according to Liepe et al.
In another study conducted by Savio et al.
Absorbed dose in bone marrow was estimated with MIRDOSE3.
Single doses of low activity 1.
Nine patients received multiple doses.
In vivo and in vitro tests were conducted in patients and rats by using two models for calculating the radiation dose: the standard MIRD schema and an ICRP model.
The calculated radiation doses in 5 patients with prostate cancer who were injected firstly with diagnostic administrations />In study by Palmedo et al.
Therapeutic Ratios of Re-188 HEDP in Skeletal Metastases Treatment According to the patient-specific 3D internal dosimetry approach by Lyra et al.
Planar data anterior and posterior images were acquired and used for an estimation of the dose in the lesions of interest, according to the MIRD schema.
For the evaluation of the spots volume estimation, cylindrical and spherical phantom of various known volumes were used.
Dose rate calculations are performed for each lesion volume by using the MIRDOSE 3.
A sensitive and well-established method of bone uptake quantification is the measurement of whole-body retention at 24 h after injection.
But since soft tissue retention of diphosphonates is known to be as high as 30% of whole-body retention, it seems appropriate to measure soft tissue retention and net bone uptake.
The results are presented in />Table 2: Re-188 HEDP therapeutic ratios.
Breast cancer remains the major cause cancer death in women in the developed world.
Novel therapeutic modalities are needed for patients with tumors resistant to conventional therapies such as chemotherapy, hormonal treatment, and external radiation.
Most of the mammal tumors express the sodium iodised symporter NIS enhancing the possibilities of breast cancer treatment.
NIS mediates iodide accumulation and organification in the thyroid gland and thus allows the use of radioisotopes for the treatment of thyroid cancer.
However, the therapeutic gains using I-131 are minimal, due to the long physical half time 8 daysthe low-energy emitted-particles, and the relatively small penetration depth up to 5 mm.
A different isotope with shorter half life and better physical properties would продолжить чтение more adequate for therapeutic purposes, especially in the case of tumors larger than 5 mm.
As an alternative option to I-131, 99mTc has a proper half life 6 hand it is trapped in a similar way to iodine but cannot be organified in the thyroid gland.
Rhenium is a chemical analogue of technetium and exhibits practically identical chemical and biodistribution properties.
Dosimetry calculations performed by extrapolation of biodistribution data to humans in the same study showed that Re-188 perrhenate is able to deliver 4.
Вынос FSA Gossamer ST 31.8 100 mm 6° v15 этом to its favorable characteristics, Re-188 labeled radiopharmaceuticals are appealing for bone metastases.
Some toxicity issues thrombocytopenia and leukopenia are unavoidable but manageable.
Significant pain palliation is achieved especially after repeated therapy of bone metastases читать полностью Re-188 HEDP.
Patient-specific 3D dosimetry allows for an accurate dose determination, and adequately high dose delivery in metastatic bone lesions to bone marrow can be achieved.
Utilization Gamma OM-148 OM-148 SPECT radionuclide distribution in defined ROIs can provide, through voxel slices, accurate foci volume, and dose rate calculations are performed for each lesion volume.
приведу ссылку this context, the concept of therapeutic ratios as described in the dosimetry section can effectively represent the results of treatment.
Usage of Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals could also enhance therapeutic efficacy to other malignancies e.
Therapeutic ratios in these cases could provide a powerful and reliable tool for the estimation of treatment benefits.
Arteaga de Murphy, L.
Watson, S, Ссылка на продолжение Dose Per Unit Cumulated Activity for Selected Radionuclides and Organs, MIRD Pamphlet no.

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