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IQ PIPE 10W (1 метр)


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IQ PIPE 10W (1 метр)

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IQ classification 5 the practice by IQ test publishers of 5 IQ score ranges with category names such as "superior" or "average". There are several publishers of tests of cognitive abilities.

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No two publishers use exactly the same classification labels, which have changed from time to time since the beginning of intelligence testing in the early twentieth century. IQ scores have been.
What IQ Scores Mean Posted at 09:48h in IQ, Intelligence and Brain Power by Grant McKinlay Intelligence testing began in earnest in France, when in 1904 psychologist Alfred Binet was commissioned by the French government to find a method to differentiate between children who were intellectually normal and those who were inferior.

Score distribution chart for sample of 905 children tested on 1916 Stanford—Binet Test IQ classification is the practice by test publishers of labeling IQ score ranges with category names such as "superior" or "average".
There are several publishers of tests of cognitive abilities.
No two publishers use exactly the same classification labels, which have changed from time to time since the beginning of intelligence testing in the early twentieth century.
IQ scores have been derived by two different methods since the advent of cognitive ability tests.
The first method historically was the "ratio IQ" based on estimating a "mental age" of the test-taker rounded to a specified number of years and monthswhich was then divided by the test-taker's "chronological age" rounded to a specified number of years and months.
For example, a mental age score of thirteen years and zero months for a test-taker with Оптический привод LITE-ON DX-8A1H Silver chronological age ten years and zero months results in a quotient of 1.
The division result was then multiplied by 100 so that scores could be reported without decimal points.
Thus the score in the example would be reported as IQ 130.
The current scoring method for all IQ tests is the "deviation IQ".
In this method, an IQ score of 100 means that the test-taker's performance on the test is at the median level of performance in the sample of test-takers of about the same age used to norm the test.
An IQ score of 115 means performance one above the median, a score of 85 performance, one standard deviation below the median, and so on.
Deviation IQs are now used for standard scoring of all IQ tests in large part because they allow a consistent definition of IQ for both children and adults.
By the current "deviation IQ" definition of IQ test standard scores, about two-thirds of all test-takers obtain scores from 85 to 115, and about 5 percent of the population scores above 125.
All IQ tests show variation in scores even when the same person takes the same test over and over again.
IQ scores also differ for a test-taker taking tests from more than one publisher at the same age.
The various test publishers do not use uniform 5 or definitions for IQ score classifications.
Even before IQ tests were invented, there were attempts to classify people into categories by observing their behavior in daily life.
Those other forms of behavioral observation are still Вертикальный велотренажер DFC for validating classifications based primarily on IQ test scores.
Both intelligence classification by observation of behavior outside the testing room and classification by IQ testing depend on the definition of "intelligence" used in a particular case and on the and error of estimation in the classification procedure.
IQ scores can differ to some degree for the same person on different IQ tests, so a person does not always belong to the same IQ score range each time the person is tested.
IQ score table data and pupil pseudonyms adapted from description of KABC-II norming study cited in Kaufman 2009.
Pupil KABC-II WISC-III WJ-III Asher 90 95 111 Brianna 125 110 105 Colin 100 93 101 Danica 116 127 118 Elpha 93 105 93 Fritz 106 105 105 Georgi 95 100 90 Hector 112 113 103 Imelda 104 96 97 Jose 101 99 86 Keoku 81 78 75 Leo 116 124 102 IQ tests generally are enough that most people ages ten and older have similar IQ scores throughout life.
Still, some individuals score very differently when taking the same test at different times or when taking more than one kind of IQ test at the same age.
For example, many children in the famous longitudinal begun in 1921 by Lewis Terman showed declines in IQ as they grew up.
Terman recruited school pupils based on referrals from teachers, and gave them his IQ test.
Children with an IQ above 140 by that test were included in the study.
There were 643 children in the main study group.
When the students who could be contacted again 503 students were retested at high school age, they were found to have dropped 9 IQ points on average in Stanford—Binet IQ.
More than two dozen children dropped by 15 IQ points and six by 25 points or more.
Yet parents of those children thought that the children were still as bright as ever, or even brighter.
Because all IQ tests have error of measurement in the test-taker's IQ score, a test-giver should always inform the test-taker of the confidence interval around the score obtained on a given occasion of taking each test.
IQ scores are and are not expressed in an interval measurement unit.
Besides the inherent error band around any IQ test score because tests приведенная ссылка a "sample of learned behavior", IQ scores can also be misleading because test-givers fail to follow standardized administration and scoring procedures.
In cases of test-giver mistakes, the usual result is that tests are scored too leniently, giving the test-taker a higher IQ score than the test-taker's performance justifies.
Some test-givers err by showing a "halo effect", with low-IQ individuals receiving IQ scores even lower than if standardized procedures were followed, while high-IQ individuals receive inflated IQ scores.
IQ classifications for individuals also vary because category labels for IQ score ranges are specific to each brand of test.
The test publishers do not have a uniform practice of labeling IQ score ranges, nor do they have a consistent practice of dividing up IQ score ranges into categories of the same size or with the same boundary scores.
Thus psychologists should specify which test was given when reporting a test-taker's IQ.
Psychologists and IQ test authors recommend that psychologists adopt the terminology of each test publisher when reporting IQ score ranges.
IQ classifications from IQ testing are not the last word on how a test-taker will do in life, nor are they the only information to be considered for placement in school or job-training programs.
There is still a dearth of information about how behavior differs between persons with differing IQ scores.
For placement in school programs, for medical diagnosis, and for career advising, factors other than IQ must also be part of an individual assessment.
The lesson here is that classification systems are necessarily arbitrary and change at the whim of test authors, government bodies, or professional organizations.
They are statistical concepts and do not correspond in any real sense to the specific capabilities of any particular person with a given IQ.
The classification systems provide descriptive labels that may be useful for communication purposes in a case report or conference, and nothing more.
Kaufman and Elizabeth O.
Not all report test results as "IQ", but most now report a standard score with a median score level of 100.
When a test-taker scores higher or lower than the median score, the score is indicated as 15 standard score points higher or lower for each standard deviation difference higher or lower in the test-taker's performance on the test item content.
The first Wechsler test published was the Wechsler—Bellevue Scale in 1939.
The Wechsler IQ tests for children and for adults are the most frequently used individual IQ tests in the English-speaking world and in their translated versions are perhaps the most widely used IQ tests worldwide.
The Wechsler tests have long been regarded as the "gold standard" in IQ testing.
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition WAIS—IV was published in 2008 by The Psychological Corporation.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fifth Edition WISC—V was published in 2014 by The 5 Corporation, and the DWS20-1316 Джинсовый ремень (2,0) Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Fourth Edition WPPSI—IV was published in 2012 by The Psychological Corporation.
Like all current IQ tests, the Wechsler tests report a "deviation IQ" as the standard score for the full-scale IQ, with the norming sample median raw score defined as IQ 100 and a score one standard deviation higher defined as IQ 115 and one deviation lower defined as IQ 85.
Current Wechsler WAIS—IV, WPPSI—IV IQ classification IQ Range "deviation IQ" IQ Classification 130 and above Very Superior 120—129 Superior 109—119 High Average 90—109 Average 80—89 Low Average 70—79 Borderline 69 and below Extremely Low Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fifth Edition WISC-V IQ classification IQ Range "deviation IQ" IQ Classification 130 and above Extremely High 120—129 Very High 110—119 High Average 90—109 Average 80—89 Low Average 70—79 Very Low 69 and below 5 Low Psychologists have proposed alternative language for Wechsler IQ classifications.
The term "borderline", which implies being very close to being intellectually disabled, is replaced in the alternative system by a term that doesn't imply a medical diagnosis.
Roid and published in 2003 by Riverside Publishing.
Unlike scoring on previous versions of the Stanford—Binet test, SB5 IQ scoring is deviation scoring in which each standard deviation up or down from the norming sample median score is 15 points from the median score, IQ 100, just like the standard scoring on the Wechsler tests.
McGrew and Nancy Mather and published in 2007 by Riverside.
The WJ III classification terms are not applied to the same score ranges as for the Wechsler or Stanford—Binet tests.
Kaufman and published in 1993 by American Guidance Service.
Kaufman test scores "are classified in a symmetrical, nonevaluative fashion", in other words the score ranges for classification are just as wide above the median as below the median, and the classification labels do not purport to assess individuals.
KAIT 1993 IQ classification 130 and above Upper Extreme 120—129 Well Above Average 110—119 Above average 90—109 Average 80—89 Below Average 70—79 Well Below Average 69 and below Lower Extreme Main article: The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition was developed by Alan S.
Kaufman and Nadeen L.
Kaufman and published in 2004 by American Guidance Service.
Das and published in 1997 by Riverside.
Elliott and published in 2007 by Psychological Corporation.
The DAS-II is a test battery given individually to children, normed for children from ages two years and six months through seventeen years and eleven months.
It was normed on 3,480 noninstitutionalized, English-speaking children in that age range.
The DAS-II yields a General Conceptual Ability GCA score scaled like an IQ score with the median standard score set at 100 and 15 standard score points for each standard deviation up or down from the median.
The lowest possible GCA score on DAS—II is 30, and the highest is 170.
The RIAS was published in 2003 by Psychological Assessment Resources.
Wallace Wallin in 5 March 1911 issue of the journal The Psychological Clinic volume 5 number 1public domain.
Lewis Terman, developer of the Stanford—Binet Intelligence Scales, based his English-language Stanford—Binet IQ test on the French-language Binet—Simon test developed by.
Terman believed his test measured the "" construct advocated by 1904.
Terman differed from Binet in reporting scores on his test in the form of "mental age" divided by chronological age scores after the 1912 suggestion of German psychologist.
Terman chose the category names for score levels on the Stanford—Binet test.
When he first chose classification for score levels, he relied partly on the usage of earlier authors who wrote, before the existence of IQ tests, on topics such as individuals unable to care for themselves in independent adult life.
Terman's first version of the Stanford—Binet was based on norming samples that included only white, American-born subjects, mostly from California, Nevada, and Oregon.
Terman's Stanford—Binet original 1916 classification IQ Range "ratio IQ" IQ Classification Above 140 "Near" genius or genius 120—140 Very superior intelligence 110—120 Superior intelligence 90—110 Normal, or average, intelligence 80—90 Dullness, rarely classifiable as feeble-mindedness 70—80 Border-line deficiency, sometimes classifiable as dullness, often as feeble-mindedness Below 70 Definite feeble-mindedness Rudolph Pintner proposed a set of classification terms in his 1923 book Intelligence Testing: Methods and Results.
Pintner commented that psychologists of his era, including Terman, went about "the measurement of an individual's general ability without waiting for an adequate psychological definition.
Pintner 1923 IQ classification IQ Range "ratio IQ" IQ Classification 130 and above Very Superior 120—129 Very Bright 110—119 Bright 90—109 Normal 80—89 Backward 70—79 Borderline Albert Julius Levine and Louis Marks proposed a broader set of categories in their 1928 book Testing Intelligence and Achievement.
Some of the terminology in the table came from contemporary terms for classifying individuals with intellectual disabilities.
Levine and Marks 1928 IQ classification IQ Range "ratio IQ" IQ Classification 175 and over Precocious 150—174 Very superior 125—149 Superior 115—124 Very bright 105—114 Bright 95—104 Average 85—94 Dull 75—84 Borderline 50—74 Morons 25—49 Imbeciles 0—24 Idiots The second revision 1937 of the Stanford—Binet test retained "quotient IQ" scoring, despite earlier criticism of that method of reporting IQ test standard scores.
The term "genius" was no longer used for any IQ score range.
The second revision was normed only on children and adolescents no adultsand only "American-born white children".
Terman's Stanford—Binet Second Revision 1937 classification IQ Range "ratio IQ" IQ Classification 140 and over Very superior 120—139 Superior 110—119 High average 90—109 Normal or average 80—89 Low average 70—79 Borderline defective Below 60 Mentally defective A data table published later as part of the manual for the 1960 Third Revision Form L-M of the Stanford—Binet test reported score distributions from the 1937 second revision standardization group.
Score Distribution of Stanford—Binet 1937 Standardization Group IQ Range "ratio IQ" Percent of Group 160—169 0.
He devoted a whole chapter in his book The Measurement of Adult Intelligence to the topic of IQ classification and proposed different category names from those used by Lewis Terman.
Wechsler also criticized the practice of earlier authors who published IQ classification tables without specifying which IQ test was used to obtain the scores reported in the tables.
Wechsler—Bellevue 1939 IQ classification IQ Range "deviation IQ" IQ Classification Percent Included 128 and over Very Superior 2.
He revised his chapter on the topic of IQ classification and commented that "mental age" scores were not a more valid way to score intelligence tests than IQ scores.
He continued to use the same classification terms.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales 1958 Classification IQ Range "deviation IQ" Вот ссылка Classification Theoretical Percent Included 128 and over Very Superior 2.
For rough comparability of scores between the second and third revision of the Stanford—Binet test, scoring table author Samuel Pinneau set 100 for the median standard score level and 16 standard score points for each standard deviation above or below that level.
The highest score obtainable by direct look-up from the standard scoring tables based on norms from the 1930s was IQ 171 at various chronological ages from three years six months with a test raw score "mental age" of six years and two months up to age six years and three months with a test raw score "mental age" of ten years and three months.
The classification for Stanford—Binet L-M scores does not include terms such as "exceptionally gifted" and "profoundly gifted" in the test manual itself.
David Freides, reviewing the Stanford—Binet Third Revision in 1970 for the Buros Seventh Mental Measurements Yearbook published in 1972commented that the test was obsolete by that year.
Terman's Stanford—Binet Third Revision Form L-M classification IQ Range "deviation IQ" IQ Classification 140 and over Very superior 120—139 Superior 110—119 High average 90—109 Normal or average 80—89 Low average 70—79 Borderline defective Below 60 Mentally defective The first edition of the Woodcock—Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities was published by Riverside in 1977.
The classifications used by the WJ-R Cog were "modern in that they describe levels of performance as opposed to offering a diagnosis.
Wechsler changed a few of the boundaries for classification categories and a few of their 5 compared to the 1958 version of the test.
The test's manual included information about how the actual percentage of persons in the norming sample scoring at various levels compared to theoretical expectations.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales 1981 Classification IQ Range "deviation IQ" IQ Classification Actual Percent Included Theoretical Percent Included 130+ Very Superior 2.
Kaufman and Nadeen L.
Kaufman and published in 1983 by American Guidance Service.
K-ABC 1983 Ability Classifications Range of Standard Scores Name of Category Percent of Norm Sample Theoretical Percent Included 130+ Upper Extreme 2.
It retained the deviation scoring of the third revision with each standard deviation from the median being defined as a 16 IQ point difference.
The S-B IV adopted new classification terminology.
After this test was published, psychologist Nathan Brody lamented that IQ tests had still not caught up with advances in research on human intelligence during the twentieth century.
Stanford—Binet Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition S-B IV 1986 classification IQ Range "deviation IQ" IQ Classification 132 and above Very superior 121—131 Superior 111—120 High average 89—110 Average 79—88 Low average 68—78 Slow learner 67 or below Mentally retarded The third edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS-III used different classification terminology from the earliest versions of Wechsler tests.
The legal system recognized a concept of some individuals being so cognitively impaired that they were not responsible for criminal behavior.
Medical doctors sometimes encountered adult patients who could not live independently, being unable to take care of their own daily living needs.
Various terms were used to attempt to classify individuals with varying degrees of intellectual disability.
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Свеча зажигания NGK BKR7EKC BKR7EKC моему of the earliest terms are now considered very offensive.
In current medical diagnosis, IQ scores alone are not conclusive for a finding of intellectual disability.
Recently adopted diagnostic standards place the major emphasis on the adaptive behavior of each individual, with IQ score just being one factor in diagnosis in addition to adaptive behavior scales, and no category of intellectual disability being defined primarily by IQ scores.
Psychologists point out that evidence from IQ нажмите чтобы узнать больше should always be used with other assessment evidence in mind: " In the end, any and all interpretations of test performance gain diagnostic meaning when they are corroborated by other data sources and when they are empirically or logically related to the area or areas of difficulty specified in the referral.
In his book Hereditary Genius, writing before the development of IQ testing, he proposed that hereditary influences on eminent achievement are strong, and that eminence is rare in the general population.
Lewis Terman chose "'near' genius or genius" as the classification label for the highest classification on his 1916 version of the Stanford—Binet test.
By 1926, Terman began publishing about a longitudinal study of California schoolchildren who were referred for IQ testing by their schoolteachers, calledwhich he conducted for the rest of his life.
Cox, a colleague of Terman's, wrote a whole book, The Early Mental Traits of 300 Geniuses, published as volume 2 of The Genetic Studies of Genius book series, in which she analyzed biographical data about historic geniuses.
Although her estimates of childhood IQ scores of historical figures who never took IQ tests have been criticized on methodological grounds, Cox's study was thorough in finding out what else matters besides IQ in becoming a genius.
By the 1937 second revision of the Stanford—Binet test, Terman no longer used the term "genius" as an IQ classification, nor has any subsequent IQ test.
In 1939, Wechsler wrote "we are rather hesitant about calling a person a genius on the basis of a single intelligence test score.
Many California pupils were recommended for the study by schoolteachers.
Two pupils who were tested but rejected for inclusion in the study because of IQ scores too low for the study 5 up to be Nobel Prize winners in physics: and.
Based on the historical findings of the Terman study and on biographical examples such aswho had an IQ of 125 and went on to win the Nobel Prize in physics and become widely known as a genius, the current view of читать статью and other scholars of genius is that a minimum IQ, about 125, is Аккумулятор TITAN ASIA EFB 100 А.ч Обратная полярность necessary for genius, but that IQ is sufficient for development of genius only when combined with the other influences identified by Cox's biographical study: opportunity for talent development продолжить with the characteristics of drive and persistence.
Charles Spearman, bearing in mind the influential theory that he originated—that intelligence comprises both a "general factor" and "special factors" more specific to particular mental tasks—, wrote in 1927, "Every normal man, woman, and child is, then, a genius at something, as well as an idiot at something.
Although there is no scholarly agreement about identifying gifted learners, there is a de facto reliance on IQ scores for identifying participants in school gifted education programs.
In practice, many school districts in the United States use an IQ score of 130, including about the upper 2 or 3 percent of the national population, as a cut-off score for inclusion in school gifted programs.
As long ago as 1937, Lewis Terman pointed out that error of estimation in IQ scoring increases as IQ score increases, so that there is less and less certainty about assigning a test-taker to one band of scores or another as one looks at higher bands.
Current IQ tests also have large error bands for high IQ scores.
As an underlying reality, such distinctions as those between "exceptionally gifted" and "profoundly gifted" have never been well established.
All longitudinal studies of IQ have shown that test-takers can bounce up and down in score, and thus switch up and down in rank order as compared to one another, over the course of childhood.
Some test-givers claim that IQ classification categories such as "profoundly gifted" are meaningful, but those are based on the obsolete Stanford—Binet Third Revision Form L-M test.
The highest reported standard score for most IQ tests is IQ 160, approximately the 99.
IQ scores above this level are dubious as there are insufficient normative cases upon which to base a statistically justified rank-ordering.
Moreover, there has never been any validation of the Stanford—Binet L-M on adult populations, and there is no trace of such terminology in the writings of Lewis Terman.
Although two current tests attempt to provide "extended norms" that allow for classification of different levels of giftedness, those norms are not based on well validated data.
Accordingly the intelligence quotient IQ was developed.
The narrow definition of IQ is a score on an intelligence test.
Some of the implications are that: 1.
Approximately two-thirds of жмите сюда scores lie between 85 and 115.
Similarly, five percent are below 75 and one percent below 65.
Studies of individuals, on the other hand, may reveal large upward or downward shifts in test scores.
When we use these terms two facts must be born in mind: 1 That the boundary lines between such groups are absolutely arbitrary, a matter of definition only; and 2 that the individuals comprising one of the groups do not make up a homogeneous type.
To a large extent they were practical attempts to define various patterns of behavior in medical-legal terms.
IQ Testing 101 New York: Springer, 2009.
Even though not all studies indicate significant discrepancies between intelligence batteries at the group level e.
Interestingly, while his tests measured decreases in test scores, the parents of the children noted no changes at all.
Of all the parents who filled out the home questionnaire, 45 продолжить perceived no change in their children; 54 percent thought their children were getting brighter, including the children whose scores actually dropped.
The confidence interval is a function of both the standard error of measurement and the confidence level: the greater the confidence level e.
Psychologists usually use a confidence interval of 95%.
The most conservative view would be that IQ is simply an ordinal scale: to say that someone has an IQ of 130 is simply to say that their test score lies within the top 2.
Follow the specified classification system strictly, labeling scores according to what is recommended in the test manual.
If you believe that a classification does not accurately reflect the examinee's status, state your concern in the report when you discuss the reliability and validity of the findings.
IQ tests are not intended to isolate and measure highly specific skills and knowledge.
This is the job of suitably designed achievement tests.
Intelligent Testing With the WISC-V.
Terman and Merrill 1937, pp.
Wechsler deserves credit for popularizing the deviation IQ, although the Otis Self-Administering Tests and the Otis Group Intelligence Scale had already used similar deviation-based composite scores in the 1920s.
In most cases the reporters proceeded to interpret the I.
The examiners were seemingly unaware of the fact that identical I.
Wells 32 years ago in The 1938 Mental Measurements Yearbook.
The Binet scales have been around for a long time and their faults are well known.
Moreover, IQ measures are less valid in the lower end of the IQ range.
It is of course obvious that much error may creep into an experiment of this sort, and the I.
Generally, the more information, the higher the IQ.
Subjects were dragged down if there was little information about their early lives.
So she proceeded to make a statistical correction in each case for lack of knowledge; this bumped up the figure considerably for the geniuses about whom little was in fact known.
I am rather doubtful about the justification for making the correction.
That all equally intelligent children do not as adults achieve equal eminence is in part accounted for by our last conclusion: youths who achieve eminence are characterized not only by high intellectual traits, but also by persistence of motive and effort, confidence in their abilities, and great strength or force of character.
Seventy—seven who were tested with the newly translated and standardized Binet test had IQs of 170 or higher—well at or above the level of Cox's geniuses.
What happened to these potential geniuses—did they revolutionize society?
The answer in brief is that they did very well in terms of achievement, but none reached the Nobel Prize level, let alone that of genius.
It seems clear that these data powerfully confirm the suspicion that intelligence is not a sufficient trait for truly creative achievement of the highest grade.
Yet a few decades later that talent received the Nobel Prize in physics: William Shockley, the cocreator 5 the transistor.
Ironically, not one of the more than 1,500 children who qualified according to his IQ criterion received so high an honor as adults.
See also "" Kaufman, S.
The probable error in terms of mental age is of course larger with older than with young children because of the increasing spread of mental age as we go from younger to older groups.
For this reason it has been customary to express the P.
Figure 3 is typical of the arrays at every age level.
From Figure 3 it becomes clear that the 5 error of an I.
It has frequently been noted in the literature that gifted subjects show greater I.
In these cases, errors of measurement for scale scores will increase substantially at the extremes of the distribution.
Commonly the SEM is from two to four times larger for very high scores than for scores near the mean Lord, 1980.
Although spreading out the test scores in this way may be helpful, the corresponding normative scores i.
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